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Chapter 13

Textbook Notes - Chapter 13 (Gender Stratification)

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SOC 1100
Linda Gerber

Sociology: Chapter 13 – Gender Stratification Gender: the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male Gender Stratification: the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women Patriarchy: a form of social organization in which males dominate females Matriarchy: a form of social organization in which females dominate males Sexism: the belief that one six is innately superior to the other Gender Roles (Sex Roles): attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex Intersection Theory: the interplay of race, class, and gender, often resulting in multiple dimensions of disadvantage Sexual Harassment: comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated and unwelcome Feminism: the advocacy of social equality for women and men, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism Gender and Inequality - Male/Female Differences – must be careful not to think of social differences in biological terms o cultural patterns: men more intelligent than women o difference in physical ability - Gender in Global Perspective o The Israeli Kibbutz: In Israel, collective statements called kibbutzim; gender equality is one of its stated goals o Margaret Mead’s Research: if gender is based on biological differences, definition should be consistent everywhere, but if it’s cultural there should be variations; New Guinea – feminine culture; Mundugumor – masculine; Tchambuli, women were dominant and rational and men were emotional, submissive and nurturing  Deborah Gewertz challenged Mead’s hypothesis - Patriarchy and Sexism o Costs of Sexism: limits talents and ambitions of less dominant sex; dominant sex engages in risky behaviour o Is Patriarchy Inevitable: women had little control in the past but now real choices in life; Gender and Socialization - in the past, women were described using such terms as emotional, passive, cooperative; men were rational, active, competitive - Gender and the Family: treat girls and boys differently (hugs vs. play, pink vs. blue) - Gender and the Peer Group: form single sex play groups; boys favour team sports that have complex rules and clear objectives; girls rather jump rope, talk, sing or dance – victory not the ultimate goal - Gender and Schooling: women – languages and social studies; men – math and sciences - Gender and the Mass Media: Gender and Social Stratification Gender affects more than thought and action – one’s place on the social hierarchy - Working Men and Women: 1901, 13% women paid workforce earning half of men’s income, 36.4% in 1971 and 55.7% in 2001; men dropped slightly (decline in farming, growth of cities, post-industrial economy, increasing education, smaller family size, rising divorces); used to be maternity leave, now parental leave - Gender, Occupations and Income: women are moving into business, finance, engineering, sciences, medicine; men moving into nursing; service industry (babysitting, waiting tables, hairdressing – pink collar) - Housework: Women’s “Second Shift”: essential to family life and little reward for doing it; - Gender and Education: women are more likely than men to get a degree - Gender and Politics: - Are Women a Minority – white women well-represented but have economic disadvantage - Minority Women: Intersection Theory: Aboriginal, woman – multiple jeopardy - Violence Against Women: built into different cultures in different ways; genital mutilation; virgins at marriage o Violence by Women o Violence against Men - Sexual Harassment - Pornography – moral issue, power issue S-F S-I S-C Level Macro Micro Macro What does Parsons described gender Numerous sociologists have Engels described gender in gender in terms of 2 shown that gender is part of terms of the power of one mean? complementary patterns of the reality that guides social sex over the other. behaviour: masculine and interaction in everyday feminine situations. Is gender Helpful. Gender gives men Hard to say; gender is both Harmful. Gender limits helpful or and women distinctive helpful and harmful. In people’s personal harmful. roles and responsibilities every day life, gender is one development. Gender that help society o
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