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Chapter

SOC 1100 Chapter Notes -Achievement Orientation, Crisis Management, Reference Group


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 1100
Professor
Deanna Behnke- Cook

Page:
of 4
CHAPTER 7
Groups and Organizations
the context of interaction and belonging
social group:
“two or more people who identify and interact with one another”
groups provide people with shared experiences, loyalties and interests
category:
people who have some status in common
• physicians, seniors, Québécois, farmers
may recognize shared status, but do not all interact or know each other
can be the basis for group formation • minority groups? ethnic groups?
(should be categories)
crowd temporary cluster
400,000 at Rolling Stones SARS concert
primary group
“a small social group whose members share personal and enduring
relationships”
spend time together
wide range of activities together
know each other well
provides a sense of security / identity
members can “be themselves
bound by emotion and loyalty
who you are is important
secondary group:
•“is a large and impersonal social group whose members pursue specific
interests or activities”
weak emotional ties, little personal knowledge
short-term, emerging, disappearing
students in this course
• dozens or hundreds of members
only occasionally think of themselves as “we”
goal orientation
what you are, what you can do are important
“score-keeping” on favours (reciprocity)
leadership styles
authoritarian
instrumental concerns (achieving goals)
assumes decision-making role
expects compliance from subordinates
effective in crisis management
democratic
expressive concerns, draws on ideas of all
laissez-faire
group functions on its own
least effective in goal attainment
group conformity
Under what conditions do people conform to group expectations?
How far will people go in order to conform? (shock experiment)
Does groupthink interfere with effective decision-making? (group decision-
making)
•reference group:
• a social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations or
decisions
•group size:
• changing group dynamics
• party arrivals
• dinner parties
dyad:
• a social group with two members
• most meaningful of our social bonds (marriage)
characterized by instability (both must commit)
•the triad:
a social group with three members
• more stable than a dyad: mediator
•growth in size:
•progressively more stable
• departure of one does not threaten group’s existence
• less intense personal interaction
• larger groups, less personal attachment, more formal rules and
regulations
helps group persist over time
social diversity
boundary maintenance
large homogeneous groups turn inward
• institutional completeness
heterogeneous groups turn outward
social parity (equality) promotes contact
physical boundaries foster social boundaries
networks
a network is a web of social ties that links people who identify and interact
little with one another
a network is a web of weak social ties
“six degrees of separation”
cybernetworks
the internet, Face Book, Twitter
Club DJs global ties
Formal organizations
“large, secondary groups that are organized to achieve their goals
efficiently”
accomplish complex jobs rather than meet personal needs
can employ thousands or millions
government,
bureaucracy
•“an organizational model rationally designed to perform complex tasks
efficiently”
specialization
hierarchy of offices
rules and regulations
technical competence
impersonality
formal, written communication
informal side of bureaucracy
structure / how real?
dehumanizing / alienation / inertia
Our theoretical lenses
structural-functionalism
• formal organization
• bureaucracy
social conflict
• diversity