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Canada (162,165)
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SOC 1100 (295)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Notes

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SOC 1100
Deanna Behnke- Cook

Chapter 2 Sociological Investigation Basics of Sociological Investigation one kind of truth such as believing in god is a belief or faith a second kind of truth rests on the pronouncement of some recognized expert third type is based on a simple agreement among ordinary people the forth kind is science Science a logical system that bases knowledge on direct systematic observation Empirical Evidence information we can verify with our senses6 statement North Americans believe are ture1 Poor people are far more likely than rich people to break the law2 Canada is a middleclass society in which people are more or less equal3 Poor people dont want to work4 Differences in the behavior of females and males are just human nature5 People change as they grow old losing many interests as they focus on theirhealth6 Most people marry because they are in loveThere are 3 ways to do research scientific sociology interpretive sociology critical sociology Scientific SociologyScientific sociology the study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior believes that Positivism exist out there gather empirical evidence by seeing hearing or touching Concept a mental construct that represents some part of the world in simplified form society is a concept Variable concept whose values changes from case to case ex price sociologists often have to pick what factors to consider statistical measures are mean median mode Operationalize A Variable specifying exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable Reliability consistency in measurement reliable if repeated measurements give same results time after time Validity actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure Cause and effect relationship in which change in one variable causes change in another Independent variable variable that causes the change Dependent variable variable that changesjust because two variables change together does not mean that they are linked in cause and effect relationshipCorrelation relationship in which two or more variables change together Spurious correlation apparent but false relationship between two or more variables that is caused by some other variableControl holding constant all variables except one in order to se clearly the effect of that variable needed in order to be claimed spuriouscorrelation is not the same as cause and effect to claim cause and effect 2 variables must show correlation casual variable must come first and there can be no evidence the correlation is spuriousTo establish cause and effect need three things
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