SOC 1100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Labeling Theory, Corporate Crime, Arson
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Chapter 7: Deviance and Crime
Deviance: Occurs when someone departs from a norm and evokes a negative reaction from others.
Crime: Deviance that is against the law.
Law: A norm stipulated and enforced by government bodies.
Sanction: The negative reaction that one receives for deviance.
Deviance is socially constructed because something’s are no longer viewed as deviant. This process is
called Deviance Down.
Deviance Up: Behaviours that used to be considered acceptable but are now deviant.
Meaghan Washington, TED: Meaghan Washington was born with a stutter and struggles to talk in
public, however her profession is singing, which she does very well.
Disability: A physical or mental problem that keeps people from performing within the range of normal
Invisible Disabilities: Refers to symptoms not obvious to the onlooker, but can limit daily activities.
State Crime: State organizational deviance involving the violation of human rights.
Moral Panic: When people believe that some form of deviance poses a profound threat to society’s
well-being. Panic benefits the media, judicial system and politicians.
Maras: Gangs formed in the United States and imported into Central America, El Salvador.
Informal Punishment: Involves a mild sanction that is imposed during fact-to-face interaction,
not by the judicial system.
Stigmatized: People who are negatively evaluated because of a marker that distinguishes them
from others and that is labelled as socially unacceptable.
Formal Punishment: Takes place when the judicial system penalizes someone for breaking a
Four Types of Deviance and Crime:
1. Social Diversions: Minor acts of deviance that are generally perceived as relatively harmless
and that evoke, at most, a mild societal reaction, such as amusement or disdain. Dyeing your
2. Social Deviations: Non-criminal departures from norms that are nonetheless subject to official
control. Some members of the public regard them as somewhat harmful while other members of
the public do not. Going against the rules.
3. Conflict Crimes: Are illegal acts that many people consider harmful to society. However, other
people think they are not very harmful. They are punishable by the state.
4. Consensus Crime: Illegal acts that nearly all people agree are bad in themselves and harm
society greatly. The state inflicts severe punishment for consensus crimes.
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