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Chapter 14

SOC 1100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: Institutional Racism, Miscegenation, Authoritarian Personality

Course Code
SOC 1100
Linda Gerber

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Chapter 14- Race and Ethnicity
Race- a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits
that members of a society consider important
Ethnicity- a shared cultural heritage
Minority- any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural differences that a
society sets apart and subordinates
Prejudice- a rigid and unfair question generalization about an entire category of people
Stereotype- a simplified description applied to every person in some category
Racism- the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another
Scapegoat- a person or category of people, typically with little power, whom people
unfairly blame for their own troubles
Discrimination- unequal treatment of various categories of people
Institutional prejudice and discrimination- bias built into the operational of society`s
institutions, including schools, hospitals, the police and the workplace
Pluralism- a state in which racial and ethnic minorities are distinct but have social parity
Intuitional Completeness- the complexity of community organizations that meet the
needs of members
Assimilation- the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant
culture, thereby becoming more similar to the dominant group
Miscegenation- biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories
Segregation- the physical and social separation of categories of people
Genocide- the systematic killing of one category of people by another
The Social Meaning of Race and Ethnicity
RACE refers to socially constructed categories based on biological traits a society
defines as important
-the meaning and importance of race vary from place to place and over time
-societies use racial categories to rank people in hierarchy, giving some people more
money, power, and prestige than others
-in the past, scientist created three broad categories-Caucasoid, Monogoloids, and
Negroids- but there are no biologically pure races
ETHNICITY refers to socially constructed categories based on cultural traits a society
defines as important
-ethnicity reflects a common ancestors, language and religion
-the important of ethnicity varies from place to place and over time
-people choose to play up or play down their ethnicity
-societies may or may not set categories oif people apart based on difference in
Minorities are people of various racial and ethnic categories who are visually distinctive
and disadvantage by a society
Prejudice and Stereotypes
PREDJUDICE is a rigid and unfair generalization about a category of people
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