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Chapter 14

SOC 1100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: Institutional Racism, Miscegenation, Authoritarian Personality


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 1100
Professor
Linda Gerber
Chapter
14

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Chapter 14- Race and Ethnicity
Race- a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits
that members of a society consider important
Ethnicity- a shared cultural heritage
Minority- any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural differences that a
society sets apart and subordinates
Prejudice- a rigid and unfair question generalization about an entire category of people
Stereotype- a simplified description applied to every person in some category
Racism- the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another
Scapegoat- a person or category of people, typically with little power, whom people
unfairly blame for their own troubles
Discrimination- unequal treatment of various categories of people
Institutional prejudice and discrimination- bias built into the operational of society`s
institutions, including schools, hospitals, the police and the workplace
Pluralism- a state in which racial and ethnic minorities are distinct but have social parity
Intuitional Completeness- the complexity of community organizations that meet the
needs of members
Assimilation- the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant
culture, thereby becoming more similar to the dominant group
Miscegenation- biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories
Segregation- the physical and social separation of categories of people
Genocide- the systematic killing of one category of people by another
The Social Meaning of Race and Ethnicity
RACE refers to socially constructed categories based on biological traits a society
defines as important
-the meaning and importance of race vary from place to place and over time
-societies use racial categories to rank people in hierarchy, giving some people more
money, power, and prestige than others
-in the past, scientist created three broad categories-Caucasoid, Monogoloids, and
Negroids- but there are no biologically pure races
ETHNICITY refers to socially constructed categories based on cultural traits a society
defines as important
-ethnicity reflects a common ancestors, language and religion
-the important of ethnicity varies from place to place and over time
-people choose to play up or play down their ethnicity
-societies may or may not set categories oif people apart based on difference in
ethnicity
Minorities are people of various racial and ethnic categories who are visually distinctive
and disadvantage by a society
Prejudice and Stereotypes
PREDJUDICE is a rigid and unfair generalization about a category of people
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