Atavist (atavism) - used by Cesare Lombroso to suggest criminals are physiological
throwbacks to earlier stages of human evolution. Derived from later term atavus, meaning
Endomorph- body type which is soft and round, or overweight
Ectomorph- body type which is thin and fragile, with long, slender, poorly muscled extremities,
and delicate bones
Mesomorph- athletic and muscular body type
Anomie- social conditions leading to a feeling of personal loss and dissolution, meaning a loss
of the sense of belonging
Innovative adaptation- is the second form of adaption, which happens when approved goal
achievement combines with lack of opportunity to participate fully in socially acceptable ways in
order to succeed. This is experienced by lower class individuals who have been socialized to
want traditional success items such as expensive cars, mansions, money, etc. These individuals
don’t actually have don’t have access to getting them, and can be so deprived that crime can be
Ritrualist adaptation- happens when people of society participate in socially desirable means
but they show little to no interest in goal achievement. Even though they may have gotten a
good education, good job, and appear to be leading a middle class life; they don’t care for those
symbols of success and chose to live an independent life.
Retreatist adaptation- is the behaviour of those individuals who reject socially approved goals.
They normally become drop-outs, drug abusers, or homeless people or participate in in
common living. These individuals are socially and psychologically separate from society around
Rebellious adaptation- describes a person who wants to replace those socially acceptable
goals with another system. Political radicals, revolutionaries, and anti- establishment agitators fit
into this category.
Culture conflict- sociological perspective on crime suggesting the root cause of criminality is
found in the clash of values between socialized groups over what is acceptable and proper
Differential association- thesis that criminality is learned through the process of association
with others who communicate criminal values.
1. Criminal behaviour is learned 2. Criminal behaviour is learned in interaction with other persons in process of
3. The principal part of the learning of criminal behaviour occurs within intimate personal
4. Learning of the criminal behaviour includes techniques of committing the crime and the
direction of motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes.
5. Specific direction of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as
favourable and unfavourable.