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Chapter 1

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SOC 1500
Amir Mostaghim

CHAPTER 1  Much of what we know about crime is from the media  People in society rely on their likelihood to be victimized by crime from the media, not by their own experiences o This causes people to want more money into safety rather than social programs and reducing poverty What is Criminology?**  Criminology: The scientific approach to studying criminal behaviours  Sutherland and Cressey’s definition of criminology involves the development of if criminal law and defining crime, cause of violations, and controlling methods  Criminologists use all scientific methods to do research and experiments Criminology and Criminal Justice  1960s research projects we created to understand the way the criminal justice system worked (police, courts, correctional agencies)  Criminal justices scholars analyze the work of the police, courts, and correctional agencies, while criminologists study why, the extent, and the nature of crime in society o But both must know about the other field to successfully do their job and help each field grow and develop Criminology and Deviance  Behaviour that doesn’t belong as a norm in society is deviant behaviour not criminology o Women going topless in public, nude beaches, ect…  Criminologists want to understand how deviant behaviour becomes a crime, and when should acts considered crimes be legal o How marijuana changed from a deviant act to a crime in 1923 A Brief History of Criminology**  Criminal codes have been written for thousands of years, but lacked defining crime th  From the middle ages to the 17 century many people were accused of witch craft and were burned alive Classical Criminology  Mid 18 century philosophers began calling lawmakers to rethink the laws and make them just o Utilitarianism- balance between punishment and criminal behaviours  Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794) was a law reformer and wrote about motives for committing crime and methods for controlling this  CLASSICAL CRIMONOLOGY- people choose whether to act just or be a criminal for personal gains and greed, crime can only be controlled by the fear of criminal sanctions  In the late 18 and 19 centuries this perspective was put into place, and the punishment would be dealt according to the severity of the crime. 19 Century Positivism  Positivism arose in the late 19 century and was a scientific method that was first applied to nature then applied to human behaviour, this was done by Auguste Comte o He stated society passes through stages where people believe and understand the world based on their group of time in history  Primitive societies believe sun is god, people later rationalize thoughts  Positivism has two main thoughts… o Human behaviour is functioned by an external force beyond control, these may be social (wealth/class), also political and historical (war/famine), also psychological forces such as brain structure and power. All of these influence human behaviour o The use of scientific method to solve problems. For example postivists would agree with intelligence because we can test this with IQ test. But they would not believe in ghosts because you can not scientifically prove their existence (Charles Darwin helped this view) Positivist Criminology th  mid 19 century scientists began using methods to determine criminal behaviour o J. K. Lavater studied facial features (ears, nose, eyes) and whether the distance between them caused criminal behaviour o Franz Joseph Gall and Johann Kaspar Spurzheim studied the shape of the skull and bumps on the head as well  Philippe Pinel said people could do abnormal behaviours without being mentally ill. He called this MANIE SANS DELIRE (mania without delusion) this is know known as psychopathic personality  Both Rush and Maudsley believed in the brain linking towards criminal behaviours and attracted attention to brain and personality with criminals Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) and the Criminal Man  Studied the bodies of executed criminals to see if they were different from those who had normal behaviours  Believed that criminals were born criminals and inherited criminal traits o Created criminal anthropology- crime through physical traits  Atavistic Anomalies (traits)- criminals are born with physical traits that are the same as those in primitive times o Criminals behaviours are like those who have mental illnesses o Criminal behaviour is also inherited through family traits  Lombroso was very popular in Europe and north America and by the 20 th century authors were discussing the science of criminology The Development of Sociological Criminology  Positivists were creating the field of sociology, and studying major social changes (19 century)  After many years of stability, there was a rapid growth in population from 1700-1800 or 300 million people o Cities such as Manchester had also rapid growths of over 300,000 inhabitants coming in, in just over a year  Factory jobs were available for low wages instead of agricultural jobs o Although agricultural machines came about and it increased food supply (less need for farmers) Sociological Criminology founders L. A. J. Quetelet  Belgian mathematician who began the cartographic school of criminology  Used social statistics, and mathematical techniques to investigate influences of social factors being linked to crime (sex, climate, ect…)  Showed same law-like mechanical regularity that can be observed in the world of nature that existed in the world of social facts o Founded many relationships between crime and social phenomena that is still used today in criminology Emile Durkheim  Founder of sociology, and his definition of crime as a normal and necessary social event has been more influential than any other  As a social positivist he states crime is normal because it has always been there, with richness and poverty. Almost impossible to have a society with no criminal behaviour, this society would be all people acting alike in a sense o Human behaviour is so different that there is bound to be criminal behaviour in society. AS LONG AS HUMAN DIFFERENCES EXIST, CRIME IS INVETABLE  He argued crime can be useful and healthy for society to experience o An open way for social change and that the social structure isn’t forever the same. This means there is always creative and independent thinking in society (Socrates sentenced to death because of his creative thinking, died standing up for what he believed in)  Crime calls attention to social ills o Rising crime rates calls attention for social change, this can help remove flaws in society  In “the division of labor in society” Durkheim said that a modern organic society makes have personal isolation compared to a traditional mechanical society where you keep traditional values o Anomie- norm and role confusion, not letting a person know what is socially acceptable (rapidly shifting morals and values)  Anomic societies have higher suicide rates o May cause deviance to develop The Chicago School and the McGill School th  Sociological positivism was secured by the research in the early 20 century at the university of Chicago sociology department  Pioneered research on the social ecology of the city o Inspired generation of students to continue work on social forces that create crime in urban areas (poverty has no social structure which causes crime) studied gangs and ghettos  Carl Dawson at McGill university studied industrial development, transportation, poverty, ethnicity, ect… and its significance to sociological criminology  Social psychologists believed that your surrounding and home influenced your criminal behaviours, and also older role models taught these actions Conflict Criminology
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