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Crime and Criminal Justice ÔÇô Sept 17th 2009.docx

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SOC 1500
Mavis Morton

Crime and Criminal Justice – Sept 17 2009th Self Report Survey: International Youth Survey (IYS) ­ the IYS was administrated to a sample of students in grades 7 through 9 in Toronto in April and May 2006. >[findings] violent delinquency cannot be attributed solely to the characteristics of individual students; rather, conditions associated with schools and the areas in which they are located may also play a roll. Victimization Survey  E.g. Canadian Urban Victimization Survey ­ victimization experiences of individuals samples at household via the phone. ­ Demographic info i.e. age, gender, martial status, # of children. ­ Collected every 5 years in Canada (15 years of age and older) Sexual assault, robbery, assault, break and enter, theft of personal property, household property, motor vehicle theft, vandalism. Limitations: - victims misrepresentation i.e. telescoping - underreporting (embarrassment, fear, memory) - victims may not know it’s a crime. - some crimes cannot be measured this way. - age limitations ,16 years - sampling errors and inadequate question design. Conflict tactic scale – measuring acts of violence/ crime. [hitting wife with a bat vs. missing with a wet diaper] Observational Accounts: ­ E.G. participant observation (i.e. research on gangs, squeegee kids, prostitutes, police etc.) ­ Researcher interacting with a group while observing their behaviour [way for the researcher to observe what was going on…documenting how something works, watching it work] Limitations/Benefits: ­ validity – observing first hand events in natural setting ­ hard to make inference/generalizations in a larger population (pop observing vs larger) Crime Rate may REALLY be changing! ­ during the 1990’s crime rates steadily declined in Canada’s stabilizing in early 2000’s. ­ the overall crime rate dropped by 5% in 2008 ­ police reported drug offences has increased since the early 1990s and, in 2007, reached its highest point in 20 years. -(Police reported crime rate = UCR) - > police reported crime in Canada continues to fall in 2008. Both the volume of crime and its overall severity dropped by 5%. > the national homicide rate increased slightly in 2008 (+2%), the third increase in the past 5 years. > the youth crime rate decreased 5%, the fourth decline in the past 5 years. [general perception…youth = bad] Gun crimes among teens on the rise: Feb 2008 -youth (12-17) accused of a firearm-related offences has risen in three of the past four years, increasing in 32% since 2002. -in 2006, 1287 young people were accused of a violent offence in which a gun was used. They accounted for 2.8% of all youth accused of violence. TRANSLATION = IN CANADA IN 2006 ­ 1287 youth accused of violent crime in 2006 ­ 36 of them used guns (mainly in robbery) ­ 27 youth used guns in 2002 violent crimes they were accused of committing. = **media misleads people!!!** Gender and Crime -Generalizability: studies derived from the study of men assumed to be able to account for female crime/offenders [only studied men, and if women were involved they would use the same assumptions received from the male studies] - Gender-Ratio Problem: why is it women and men have vastly divergent rates of criminal offending (Miller, 2003:16)? “A new look at the gender gap in offending” 1. has the gender gap in VIOLENT offending changed over time? 2. Has the gender gap in VIOLENT offending changed over time once taken in account race and age? Gender Gap in Offending - Gender gap in offending- women commit fewer & less serious crimes than men - Gender convergence- gender gap narrows - Gender divergence – gender gap widens - Gender stability – gender gap remains unchanged Findings? ­ no evidence of gender divergence or increase in violence committed by females regardless of timeframe, offender’s race or age (Rennison) ­ violent offending among females continues to be low ­ increase in “bad girls” is false. “Violent Crimes More Prevalent in the North” headline. ­ Stats Canada report northern Canadians are more then 3 times as likely to fall victim to violent crimes than the rest of the country, most often at the hands of people they know. “Crime higher in Western Canada” Statistics Canada” – headline Crime Specialization across Can Provinces ­ is the crime rate higher as you move from east to west across Canada? Geographical Measure of Crime ­ Location Quotient (LQ) – measures crime specialization ­ Ration of the % of a type of crime in a province/ ter relative to the % of that crime in all of Canada. LQ If LQ = 1 region has proportional share of a particular crime If LQ is >1 large share IF LQ < 1 small s
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