Crime and Criminal Justice – Sept 17 2009th
Self Report Survey: International Youth Survey (IYS)
the IYS was administrated to a sample of students in grades 7 through 9
in Toronto in April and May 2006.
>[findings] violent delinquency cannot be attributed solely to the
characteristics of individual students; rather, conditions associated with
schools and the areas in which they are located may also play a roll.
E.g. Canadian Urban Victimization Survey
victimization experiences of individuals samples at household via the
Demographic info i.e. age, gender, martial status, # of children.
Collected every 5 years in Canada (15 years of age and older)
Sexual assault, robbery, assault, break and enter, theft of personal
property, household property, motor vehicle theft, vandalism.
- victims misrepresentation i.e. telescoping
- underreporting (embarrassment, fear, memory)
- victims may not know it’s a crime.
- some crimes cannot be measured this way.
- age limitations ,16 years
- sampling errors and inadequate question design.
Conflict tactic scale – measuring acts of violence/ crime.
[hitting wife with a bat vs. missing with a wet diaper]
E.G. participant observation (i.e. research on gangs, squeegee kids,
prostitutes, police etc.)
Researcher interacting with a group while observing their behaviour
[way for the researcher to observe what was going on…documenting how
something works, watching it work]
validity – observing first hand events in natural setting
hard to make inference/generalizations in a larger population (pop
observing vs larger)
Crime Rate may REALLY be changing!
during the 1990’s crime rates steadily declined in Canada’s stabilizing in
the overall crime rate dropped by 5% in 2008
police reported drug offences has increased since the early 1990s and, in
2007, reached its highest point in 20 years. -(Police reported crime rate = UCR) -
> police reported crime in Canada continues to fall in 2008. Both the volume
of crime and its overall severity dropped by 5%.
> the national homicide rate increased slightly in 2008 (+2%), the third
increase in the past 5 years.
> the youth crime rate decreased 5%, the fourth decline in the past 5 years.
[general perception…youth = bad]
Gun crimes among teens on the rise:
-youth (12-17) accused of a firearm-related offences has risen in three of the
past four years, increasing in 32% since 2002.
-in 2006, 1287 young people were accused of a violent offence in which a gun
was used. They accounted for 2.8% of all youth accused of violence.
TRANSLATION = IN CANADA IN 2006
1287 youth accused of violent crime in 2006
36 of them used guns (mainly in robbery)
27 youth used guns in 2002 violent crimes they were accused of
= **media misleads people!!!**
Gender and Crime
-Generalizability: studies derived from the study of men assumed to be able
to account for female crime/offenders [only studied men, and if women were
involved they would use the same assumptions received from the male
- Gender-Ratio Problem: why is it women and men have vastly divergent
rates of criminal offending (Miller, 2003:16)?
“A new look at the gender gap in offending”
1. has the gender gap in VIOLENT offending changed over time?
2. Has the gender gap in VIOLENT offending changed over time once taken
in account race and age?
Gender Gap in Offending
- Gender gap in offending- women commit fewer & less serious crimes than
- Gender convergence- gender gap narrows
- Gender divergence – gender gap widens
- Gender stability – gender gap remains unchanged
no evidence of gender divergence or increase in violence committed by
females regardless of timeframe, offender’s race or age (Rennison) violent offending among females continues to be low
increase in “bad girls” is false.
“Violent Crimes More Prevalent in the North” headline.
Stats Canada report northern Canadians are more then 3 times as likely
to fall victim to violent crimes than the rest of the country, most often at the
hands of people they know.
“Crime higher in Western Canada” Statistics Canada” – headline
Crime Specialization across Can Provinces
is the crime rate higher as you move from east to west across Canada?
Geographical Measure of Crime
Location Quotient (LQ) – measures crime specialization
Ration of the % of a type of crime in a province/ ter relative to the % of that
crime in all of Canada.
If LQ = 1 region has proportional share of a particular crime
If LQ is >1 large share
IF LQ < 1 small s