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Criminology in Canada Notes.docx

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Sociology
Course Code
SOC 1500
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Concepts of Crime, Law, and Criminology 1/31/2012 6:36:00 PM  People find out about crimes from media coverage.  Criminal justice system: stages which offender passes through beginning with the investigation/ arrest followed by the release of offender and re-entry to society (Page 4).  Intimate violence: violence occurring in the family such as child abuse.  Aggressive behaviour is very often learned in homes where parents are aggressive role models and victimize their children –learned violence.  In assessing the likelihood of being victimized, people are influenced by media coverage rather than personal experience.  Third-hand knowledge of crime has negative impacts: people believe they are more at risk of being victimized, they trust less in the policing system, and they favour harsher punishments for offenders.  Violent behaviours are also linked to observational learning, traumatic experiences in childhood, and psychopathic personality structures.  Criminology: the scientific study of the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behaviour.  Criminologist: people who study criminology.  Criminology is the study of making laws, breaking laws, and reaction of breaking laws.  Criminology is an interdisciplinary science. It connects elements from other fields in order to better understand law, crime, and justice.  Criminologist explain the origin extent and nature of the crime in society. Criminal justice scholars describe and analyze the work of the police, courts and correctional facilities and how to better design effective methods of crime control.  Deviant behaviour: behaviour that departs from the social norm, but which doesn’t always warrant a legal sanction.  Crime and deviance are commonly confused however something that is deviant is not always a crime and a crime is not always an act of deviance.  Decriminalization: reduction of penalty of a criminal act but not making it legal.  Utilitarianism: Believes that punishment should be balanced and fair.  Classical Criminology: Theoretical perspective believing that (1) in society, people have the free will to choose how they act and behave, (2) people commit crimes due to personal reasons or greed, (3) crime can be controlled by instilling fear into people of the penalty, and (4) harsher the punishments for a crime, the more it deters people from committing crimes.  Capital punishment bywords were “Let the punishment fit the crime.”  Positivism: uses the scientific method of the natural sciences to suggest human behaviour is a product of social, biological, psychological, or economic forces.  Physiognomists study the face structure of people to see if they were associated with antisocial behaviour.  Phrenologists study the shape of the skill and head to see if any physical attributes are liked to criminal behaviours.  Maine sans delire –psychopathic personality  Criminal Anthropology: efforts to discover biological basis of crime through measurement of physical and mental processes. It was associated with Cesare Lombroso and the biological positivists.  Atavistic anomalies: According to Lombroso, traits that criminals are born with –they resemble those of animals or primitive people.  1/31/2012 6:36:00 PM Common Law: law originating from usage and custom rather than from written statutes. Refers to non-statutory customs, traditions and precedents that help guide judicial decision making. Statutory Law: law in form of
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