Textbook Notes (368,528)
Canada (161,957)
Sociology (1,112)
SOC 2070 (95)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 and Unit 2.docx

5 Pages
40 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 2070
Professor
Andrew Robinson
Semester
Summer

Description
Social Deviance Chapter 2 Positivist Theories There are 2 distinct but interlocking enterprises that make up the study of deviance: 1. Essentialism: Objectivity, real, scientifically explainable 2. Constructionism: rules, judgements, labelling, contexts, audiences  Essentialism implies positivism. All positivists believe than an objective common core or threads hold all deviance and crime together—non believed that they are just a matter of social convention or construction. Positivism is the application of scientific method to the study of human behaviour 3 assumptions: 1. Empiricism: material world is real and science can know the world through the senses  “I trust my senses to tell me what is true”  Things that are not directly or indirectly observable through the senses cannot be explained/integrated into theoretical and conceptual perspectives and therefore are not scientific  This poses a problem because most human behaviour cannot been seen at the moment enacted 2. Objectivism: deviant behaviour is an objective ad real phenomena that can be distinguished from conforming behaviour  Reject the notion of right and wrong and believe there is a common and material reality to crime that is contained within the actions themselves, not how the actions are thought of  Things exist regardless of definitions. Ex: mental illnesses are not present just because we say there are or because of how they can be defined. They would be there regardless or acknowledgment or definition 3. Determinism: What causes deviant behaviour, beliefs and conditions?  Why do people commit crimes and deviance? How do certain characteristics and social situations influence this? What are the patterns?  Seeks natural explanations that can be found in the material world  Looks at the cause and effect explanations Theories Freewill/ Classical Sound  Tied to the enlightment period: philosophical ideas, tried to make sense of human nature and link it to social control  Role of hedonism: self interest causes people to seek pleasure and avoid pain o Why people may not want to commit crimes ex: reputation, don’t want to go to jail, morals and ethics o Why people may turn to crimes ex: make money, satisfy desires o Difficult to balance the impulsive side of people and the cautious side  Importance of free will: we determine our own behaviour o People chose to commit crimes or choose to conform to the law o Costs and benefits of committing crime  False assumptions made: o We now see that people are not completely rational in their behaviour, engage in deviant/ criminal behaviour for reasons aside from please and pain o What is pleasurable to one person may not be to another o The calculation of pleasure and pain when committing crimes is more complicated that what was thought because many criminals fo not get caught  Routine activity theory: argues that criminal behaviour will take place when and where there is o A) A motivated offender o B) A suitable target o C) the absence of a capable guardian o Ex: If students writing a test has no one watching over them, they would be much more likely to cheat Social Disorganization and the Chicago School:  Deviance and crime is not result of the individual, but rather the social structure  Entire neighbourhoods become so disorganized that merely living in the increased the likelihood of engaging in certain forms of deviant behaviour  Why are some neighbourhoods more disorganized than others? o Land values: low rental and property value are seen as undesirable and unattractive to live in, however, they attract individuals that are geographically unstable and socially, racially and ethnically heterogeneous; hence, they do not form unified and organized communities  Doesn’t explain many other types of deviance such as homosexuality, most types of cognitive deviance and white collar crime, doesn’t take power into high enough consideration. Anomie/Strain Theory Anomie: disturbances in the social order  Cartain pressures can produce very unconventional behaviour even if it comes from very conventional origins or intentions  Merton’s theory of anomie: o Disjunction between culturally defined goals and structurally available opportunities o Our greedy desires are created by our culture o It is the gap between the cultural order that says we must become materially successful and the economic order that doesn’t give use what we want that causes deviance Malintigrated society  Macro scope 
More Less

Related notes for SOC 2070

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit