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SOC 2070 (95)
Chapter 3

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SOC 2070
Norman Dubeski

Chapter 3Constructionism focuses on the creation of social categories the imputation of deviance to those categories why certain rules exist and what the dynamics of enforcement areSocial constructionist approach permits inquiry into false accusations it is secondary that the accused person didnt do it The enterprise of persecution and condemnation is independent of the enactment of behaviour of which deviants are accusedSocial Control efforts to ensure conformity to a norm Every time people do something to induce someone to engage in behaviour they believe is right they are engaged in social controlTo the constructionist social control is the central concept Throughout human history all societies everywhere have set and enforced norms rules about what their members should and should not do Implied in a norm is the expectation that violators are punishedEveryone Everywhere is subject to normsLack of norms in a society would result in a state of collapseInternal Social Control operates through the process of socialization by learning and adopting the norms of the society from AgentsAgents family schools peers mass media are all influential agents of socializationInternalized when the norms of a society are accepted to be valid If internalization is successful people will feel huilty is they engage in behaviour that goes against their societys normsThere are always some people usually the minorities who do not accept the legitimacy of the normsExternal Social Control when agents of social control detect behaviour and use some sort of punishment or coercionSanctions rewards and punishments Informal Social Control takes place in interpersonal interactions between and among people who are acting on their own in an unofficial capacity frowning at someoneMost of the time social control is informal Formal Social Control when informal social control is ignored formal social control becomes necessary This is made up on the efforts to bring about conformity to the law by agents of the criminal justice system Formal and informal social control can operate at the same time Semiformal Social Control Professional controllers who do not have the power to arrest but who can make recommendations to agents of the criminal justice system social workers psychiatrists etcThe vast majority of rule breaking behaviour is ignored by formal and semi formal social controlPerspectives That Focus on Defining Deviance LabelingInteractionist Theory focuses on rule making and reactions to rule breakingFirst People act on the basis of the meaning that things have for themThis meaning grows out of interaction with others especially intimate othersMeaning is continuously modified by interpretationsLabelling theory is a application of symbolic interactionist approach to deviance
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