Criminal justice system: stages that the offender will go through like the police, courts and corrections. Intimate violence: crime that occurs when the offender and defendant know each other like spousal, child or elder abuse. Deviant behaviour: behaviour that doesn"t conform to social norms but isn"t defined by criminal law. Decriminalization: reducing the penalty for a criminal act and its illegality. Utilitarianism: a view that punishment should be balanced and fair, and that crime is a rational choice. Classical criminology: a perspective that says people freely choose crime, and that it can be reduced through the threat of criminal sanctions. Positivism: a branch of social science that sees behaviour as a product of social, biological, psychological and economic forces. Criminal anthropology: early efforts to discover a biological basis to crime through physical measurements, usually associated with cesare lombroso. Atavistic anomalies (or traits): the physical characteristics of a born criminal" that indicate they are throwbacks to primitive people.