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SOC*2700 Ch 16.pdf

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SOC 2700
C Yule

Chapter 16: Integrated Theories - some criminologists believe that the falsification process has failed to work - they turn to integration as a way to reduce the number of theories - they argue that different theories do not contradict each other, but instead focus on different aspects of the same phenomenon about which they make different predictions - these theories can therefore be combined through integration into a smaller number of larger theories Elliotʼs Integrated Theory of Delinquency and Drug Use - combines strain, control and social learning perspectives - integrated theories in two steps: - first, they integrated strain theory with social control theory, then they integrated the combined strain-control theory with social learning theory - in their view, strain theory argues that delinquency is a response to actual or anticipated failure to achieve socially induced needs or goals, while social control theory contends that the strength of an individualʼs bonds to conventional society is inversely related to the probability that the individual will engage in delinquent behaviour - argued that the probability of delinquency should be highest when an individual experiences both more strain and less control - argued that social disorganization should also increase strain and strain should reduce social control - second, they incorporated the social learning theory that argues that delinquency is affected by the balance between the rewards and punishments that are associated with both conforming and deviant patterns of socialization - argued that the amount of exposure to delinquent attitudes and behaviours within the peer groups is the primary factor that affects the probability of delinquent behaviour - modified control theory to take into account the type of group with which the individual bonds - control theory bolds that the content of socialization always favors conformity and that there are no strong bonds within deviant groups - in contrast, social learning theory holds that the content of socialization can favor either deviance or conformity - they integrated these two theories by hypothesizing that deviant behaviour is most likely when there are strong bonds to deviant groups and weak bonds to conventional groups - the third step is integrating strain, control and social learning theories is to propose a single like of causation that includes variables from all three theories - strain, inadequate socialization, and social disorganization all lead to weak conventional bonding - these failures the lead to strong delinquent bonding, and then delinquent behaviour The Falsification Versus Integration Debate - Hirschi argued against integration as a strategy stating that most criminology theories are contradictory because their assumptions are incompatible - theories must be tested on their own for internal consistency and explanatory power or against other theories - theories can be integrated only if they essentially argue the same thing - theorists in favor of integration responded to this arguing that the oppositional tradition in criminology had failed (falsification) - he argued that theoretical competition is pointless because most of the time the different theories explain different portions of the variance in crime - Hirschi expanded on his argument acknowledging that criminology theory has failed but did not see integration as a solution to the problem Braithwaiteʼs Theory of Reintegrative Shaming - draws on labeling, subcultural, opportunity, control, differential association and social learning theories - rather than combine arguments from earlier theories, he created a new theoretical concept - reintegrative shaming - and showed how that concept organizes the arguments of a large number of other theories - described shaming as all social processes of expressing disapproval which have the intention or effect of invoking remorse in the person being shamed and/or condemnation of others who become aware of the shaming - he divided shaming into 2 types: stigmatization (when the shaming brings about a feeling of deviance in the shamed) and reintegration (when the shamers ensure that they maintain bonds with the shamed) - reintegrative shaming occurs when violators are shamed into knowing that what they did is wrong but are nonetheless allowed reentry into the conforming group - the core argument is that reintegrative shaming leads to lower crime rates, whereas stigmatization shaming leads to higher crime rates - individuals with more social bonding are more likely to receive reintegrative shaming and are less likely to commit crime - labeling theory is drawn upon to explain stigmatization, once an individual is stigmatized, they are more likely to participate in a deviant subculture and crime - this theory acts on a structural level, greater urbanization and mobility (social disorganization) lessen the chance that societal communitarianism will exist - communitarianism, or the interdependence among individuals in a culture, tends to be associated with reintegration, while its absence leads to stigmatization, and its consequent blockage of legitimate opportunities, formation of subcultures, presence of illegitimate opportunities and higher crime rates - this theory has been linked to the much larger restorative justice movement, which responds to crime by attempting to restore victims, offenders, and communities to their condition prior to the crime - reintegrative shaming refers to restoring offenders to their condition before the offense Tittleʼs Control Balance Theory - general theory of deviance that integrates essential elements from differential association, Mertonʼs anomie, Marxian conflict, social control, labeling, deterrence and routine activities theory - proposed a new concept: control balance - his central assertion is that the amount of control to which an individual is subject, relative to the amount of control he or she can exercise, determines the probability of deviance occurring as well as the type of deviance likely to occur - this view accepts the premise of traditional control theories that controls are the central concept in explaining conformity, but contradicts them by asserting that control is also a central motivating factor that explain deviance - people who are controlled by others tend to engage in deviance to escape that control, while people who exercise control over others tend to engage in deviance in order to extend that control - conformity is associated with control balance, rather than with control itself - people are likely to engage in conforming behaviour when the control they exert over others is approximately equal to the control that others exert over them - this pattern results in a U-shaped curve - defines deviance as any behavior that the majority of a given group regards as unacceptable or that typically evokes a collective response of a negative type - he divided deviance into 6 types: 1. Predation - direct physical violence or manipulation to take property e.g. theft, robbery, rape, fraud, homicide 2. Exploitation - indirect predation, when the exploiter uses others to do the dirty work e.g. contract killings, price-fixing and political corruption 3. Defiance - when individuals revolt against norms or values e.g. violating curfews, vandalism, political protests 4. Plunder - undertaken by people without much of a social conscience, considered to be particularly heinous e.g. destroying fields to hunt for foxes, pollution by oil companies, unrealistic taxes imposed by occupying armies 5. Decadence - behaviour that is unpredictable and viewed by most as irrational e.g. group sex with children, sadistic torture 6. Submission - passive unthinking, slavish obedience to expectations, commands, or allowing oneʼs self to be sexually degraded - 4 primary concepts are employed in control balance theory: 1. Predisposition - predisposition toward deviant motivation includes oneʼs desires for autonomy and oneʼs control ratio - oneʼs desire for autonomy is relevant to predisposition and varies little across individuals, control ratio varies a lot across individuals 2. Provocation - provocations are contextual features that cause people to become more keenly cognizant of their control ratios and the possibilities of altering them through deviant behaviour e.g. verbal insults or challenges 3. Opportunity - related to the circumstances under which it is feasible to commit a given act 4. Constraint - the likelihood that potential control will actually be exercised - deviant behaviour occurs when one attempts to alter his or her control ratio, whether temporarily or permanently - deviance serves a purpose for the person who commits it - when the control ratio is not balanced, the likelihood of deviance increases at a rate that is proportional to the degree of imbalance - motivation drives the likelihood of deviance behaviour, and motivation is strongly influenced by th
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