SOC 2700 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: Assault, Androcentrism, Masculinity

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Chapter #14, Feminist Theories, Page 316-341
The pia ai of feiist theoies FT is to da o oe’s a of leaig, athe
tha hat is ooted i e’s. Its goal is to eliiate adoeti theo, ad podue
FT to crime and the CJS. Knowledge is through learned experiences, where all theories
were done by white men. There are liberal, radical, Marxist, socialist, postmodern, FTs.
Feminist Theories of Criminal Justice
They say male theories neglect gender and sex roles in society. Some say it is the
difference in sex roles and gender and a othe’s sa it is the patriarchy is a
fundamental principle of societal organization. Patriarchy has men and their rights as
dominant over females as subordinated, and it differs in intensity it many places, but
plays well with capitalism and socialism. Where the CJS is based on the patriarchy that
disadvantages women. Key features of FT are intersectionality, the gap in crimes of the
sexes, etc.
Empirical Validity of Feminist Theories of Criminal Justice
They look at the disparities for gender in the CJS. The patriarchy would suggest that
women would get harsher sentences, but evidence shows often men do. The reason
why they get more lenient sentences than men may be the chivalry hypothesis where
the CJS is dominated by males (police, judges, lawyers) so they give women less harsh
sentences, but is dismissed. And it may be because of paternalism where instead of
treating them with respect like chivalry, they treat them as weak, and passive where
the ould’t lea fo eig i jail. “oe sa that hialry is only extended to middle-
class white women (selective hypothesis) and that lesser sentences go to crimes that
are more feminine (typicality hypothesis,) hee oe ho ae’t hite, iddle-
lass o oit asulie ies do’t eeie this. Eidee has shown much for
either as criminal factors decide outcome between the sexes, but some found that
juveniles were harsher on girls than boys for status offences (running away from home,
etc.) because the system sexualizes their behaviour. However, as status offences have
been removed, women and girls are now being charged with minor assault charges,
where turning status offences into these minor crimes is bootstrapping.
Transinstitutionalization is putting people in mental homes for acts, where most are
The selective hypothesis is also not proven in older studies or new ones where race and
age hae’t sho to atte he it oes to seteig feales. Also lookig at ho
the itis ee of ies, ae o gede of the iti did’t affet setencing.
Research has shown that if a defendant has family times (married or children) they
often get lesser sentences with women getting more lenient ones. Looking at serious
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crimes, Daly found men got harsher sentences. Legal variables like seriousness of
offence and prior criminal history are the main factors for sentencing.
Feminist Theories of Crime
One issues of crime an gender is the generalization problem, that asks if theories that
explain men work for women? While some do apply to both, most only are applicable
to men. Another issue is the gender ratio problem, which looks at why men commit
much more crime than women. The problem with older theories is that the samples
tested ee ail ol e, so the do’t appl to oe. “oe that do ok ell
fo oe ae aoie, DA, ad soial odig. Right o thee ae’t geat FT fo
explaining crime or the ratio.
Woe’s Liberatio ad Feale Crie
Was the ealiest FT that had to do ith oe’s lieatio oeet i the 97s
where many social changes happened for women. 2 books were published on the
Masculinity Hypothesis- Adle’s “istes i Cie used data to sho that eetuall
oe’s ie ill eual e. “hoed oe ee gettig aested oe as thee
were changes in sex roles, women’s laou, ad eualit, asiall hee oe ould
get involved more with more chances. It is named masculinity because as women start
to commit more crime they gain masculine features.
Opportunity Hypothesis- second book is by Simon who showed that although property
ies  oe ee o the ise, iolet oes ee’t. “he said oe ould stat
to commit more white-collar in the workforce, but not violent as they would get
educated and independent and no longer accept victimization.
Both theories hae’t ee pedited  epiial eidee, as oe’s ie ates
started to increase before the liberation movement.
Economic Marginalization Hypothesis- is a theory that rivals the other two, saying that
ie is’t oitted  oe i the okfoe, mainly by poor, unemployed, etc.
women looking to provide for themselves or children. It has been supported with
evidence with the feminization of poverty. The liberation movement was supposed to
get equality, but may have hard a lot of harm on women who needed to support
themselves or family.
Power-Control Theory- is the heart of the liberation theories, where the effect of
female labour force participation on the gender gap in crime rates is looked into.
Looked at types of family structures. Patriarchal families ae those hee the fathe’s
occupation has him in command, and gives commands to the kids and mainly wife, and
is in an obey position. Egalitarian families are where both mother and father are in
command position, both work in obey positions, or the father is absent. In both women
are more likely to be in supervision and emotional bonds that control behaviour of kids
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