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Chapter 4

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University of Guelph
SOC 2700
Norman Dubeski

Volds chapter 4 notes: Psychological factors and criminal behavior: -Low intelligence=most common to explain criminal and delinquent behavior -Personality: emotional and behavioral attributes that tend to remain stable as he individual moves from situation to situation -Some researchers use personality tests -Biological and situational factors are psychological theories to consider in criminal behavior Intelligence and crime: background ideas and concepts: -people dull witted or slow were thought to be possessed by the devil -they were forced into exile and almost certain death -with transition from spiritual explanations to naturalistic once, ida abou this affliction were modified -they were explained now as curses of nature instead of curses of god -inheritance and family line of decent became the naturalistic way of accounting for misfortunes -Richard dugdale: used to explain history of family called the “jukes” -dugdale found six members of this family in a country jail -he traces the genes back two hundred years and found history of “pauperism, prostitution, exhaustion, disease, fornication, and illegitimacy -Henderson: writing in 1899, cited the jukes as typical of families of degenerates and argued that private charitable work to alleviate the suffering of these people was actually allowing them to reproduce In great numbers -this resulted in the “rising tide of pauperism, insanity, and crime which threatens to overwhelm and take over our nation.” -he argued: deterioration of the common stock must be resisted by segregating such inferior people in institution and not allowing them to reproduce -law in 1927 virginia law forced sterilization of mentally disable people, three generations are enough” IQ tests and criminal behavior: -Alfred binet: originated the intelligence tests -binet became a member of commission for formulate a policy for the administration for special classes for those who were doing poorly in the paris public schools -he devised practical test to measure mental functioning of students -Theodore Simon, medical officer of the schools they collaborated -binet assembeled large number or small tasts relating to everyday life that involed basic reasoning process -the first tasks could be completed by children and then end of the taks only adults -the scale was first shown in 1905 -each task was then assigned a mental age for example: a task that could be performed by an averge nine year old but not by an average child who was eight or younger would be assigned a mental age of 9 -in 1912 William stern suggested that mental age should be divided by chronological age and multiplied by ten -the result of this would be called the intelligence quotient -Binet rejected the idea that intelligence is a fixed and inborn quality -in other words, it could be changed -these tests then became popular: -H.H Goddard began giving tests to all new inmates on admission -by 1928 Goddard had dared to suggest that one percent of population is feebleminded Delinquency, race, and IQ -Iqs of criminals have become embroiled in a more recent controversy concerning relationship between intelligence and race -African Americans score about 15 points lower than European Americans -some scholars used different Iq scores to explain difference in crime and delinquency between races -Gordon argued that variations in delinquency rates are best explained by variations in Iq -hirchi and Hindelang argued IQ was at least as important as class or race in predicting delinquency -Quay suggested several reasons why low verbal IQ may b associated with delinquency -Fist low verbal may lead to school problems which then lead to delinquency -second low verbal abilities may be associated with a variety of other psychological problems Interpreting the association between delinquency and IQ -First approach: assume that IQ measures some form of abstract reasoning or problem-solving ability and that this ability is largely inherited -Second approach: argues that IQ dos not measure innate ability, but instead measures qualities that are related to the dominant culture. -Jane Mercer illustrated meaning of cultural bias by constructing a test of simple behavioral tasks related to intelligence such as being able to tie your shoes by age 7 -Third approach: argues IQ measures general abilities, but that these abilities are largely determined by a persons environment. -Simons cited an umber of studies that reported IQ gains averaging about 15 points when low IQ -third approach has received impressive support from research on what is known as the “Flynn Effect” -in the 80’s Flynn demonstrated that average IQ has been raising Personality and criminal behavior: -Personaliy: complex set of emotional and behavioral attributes that tend to remain relatively constant as the individual moves from situation to situation -Words like aggressive, belligerent, suspicious, likable -50’s Gluecks pubished study that compared 500 delinquent boys and non delinquent boys -argued that delinquent personality is not so muc
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