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Canada (162,359)
Sociology (1,112)
SOC 2760 (121)
Rob Shearer (108)

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SOC 2760
Rob Shearer

Pozzulo et Al Homicidal Offenders Nature and Extent of homicidal violence  Canadian criminal law recognizes four different types of homicide: first degree murder, second degree murder, manslaughter and infanticide  Maximum 5 years for infanticide and max life in prison for other three  Killing during war or killing for self defence is is exempt from penalties.  First Degree Murder o All murder that is planned and deliberate o Murder of a law enforcement officer ot correctional staff member o A murder occurring during the commission of another violent offence(e.g. sexual assault, kidnapping) regardless if the murder was unplanned or deliberate  Second degree murder o All murder not considered first degree  Manslaughter o Unintentional murder that occurs during the heat of passion, or because of criminal negligence o Ex: man comes home to wife cheating, grabs gun and shoots her  Canada’s Homicide Rate o Peaked in 1970s and gradually declined from 1975-2003 o Increased in 2004-2005 reaching highest point in decade, generally decreasing again however  US homicide rate o Higher than Canada but has been steadily declining  Gang Related homicides o 138 homicides in 2008 were gang related, only 118 in 2007 o occur mostly in Toronto and Calgary  Gun related homicides o On the rise since 2002 o 2008: 200 homicides resulted from the use of firearms, mostly handguns (61%)  Female homicide victims o Rate is decreasing 0.87 per 100 000 o Has been the lowest since 1961 o Decrease in spousal homicides accounts for this  Homicides most likely to occur in the western provinces than the eastern provinces o 2008: Manitoba reported the highest homicide rate (4.47 per 100 000) o Territories report much higher homicide rates than any province Bimodal Classification of Homicide  Reactive homicide o Impulsive, unplanned, immediate driven by negative emotions and occurring in response to some perceived provocation o Occur most often among relatives o 80% homicides in the US between 1990-1994 were classified as reactive  Instrumental homicide o Proactive, premeditated, calculated behaviour, motivated by some goal o Goal could be to obtain money power control or even the gratification of sadistic fantasies o Occur most often among strangers o 20% homicides in US between 1990-1994 classified as instrumental Filicide: When Parents Kill  killing of children by their biological parents or step parents  includes neonaticide (killing a baby within 24 hours of birth) and infanticide (killing baby within first year of life)  Ancient Rome o Father had right to kill children  China and India o Females children are more likely to be killed than male children because of the greater value these societies place on male children  Inuit and African o In the past killed infants that had birth defects or killed one infant when twins were born  Canada o Uncommon for child murder o 2004, 55 children and youth under the age of 18 were killed o Rate was the lowest since the first recording of these rates o Made up 9% of national homicides in 2004 o 62% were perpetuated by family members o 85% were committed by parents o Father was perpetrator 59% of homicides against children between 1995-2004 o 32% involved the mother o More common for father to be accused of killing children o Some studies show step fathers more likely to kill a child than biological fathers , o 14% of all parents killing their child were stepparents between 1995 and 2004. o Infants more at risk o Baby boys more at risk than girls o As children age and the overall risk disappears the gender differences also disappear Mothers Who Kill  1. Neonaticides o Kill children within 24 hours of birth o Typically young unmarried women o No prior history of mental illness not suicidal o Have concealed pregnancies and fear rejection or disapproval from their families  2. Those committed by battering mothers o Killed children impulsively in response to behaviour of child o Have the highest rates of social and family stress o Includes marital stress and financial problems  3. Those committed by mothers with mental illness o Older and married o Likely to have killed older children, have multiple victims and diagnosed with a psychosis or depression o Most likely to attempt suicide after the murder o Altruistic filicide  Mothers who kill out of love  Mothers delusional beliefs that the child’s death will somehow protect the child  Infanticide and Mental Illness o Women who kill their infants are suffering from a mental illness related to childbirth o 3 types after the postpartum period; period after child birth o Postpartum blues o Postpartum depression  Affects 7-19% of new mothers  Occurs within first few weeks or months after birth  Lasts several months  Symptoms identical to depression  Depressed mood, loss of appetite, concentration and sleep problems, suicidal thoughts  Not a mental illness that occurs as a consequence of childbirth  Increases 20-30% for those who have had previous depressive episodes  If mother has experienced post partum depression with one child has a 50% chance of developing the same with another baby o Postpartum psychosis  Rarest but most severe  Affects 1 in 1000 mothers  Symptoms: hearing voices, seeing things and feeling an irrational guilt that they have somehow done something wrong  Suicidal or homicidal thoughts within first 3 months of child birth  No link between childbirth and post partum psychosis  Without treatment may try to harm themselves or infants Fathers Who Kill o Rarely commit neonaticide o Most likely described as fatal child abuse o Lower rates of psychotic disorder but higher rates of alcohol abuse and previous criminality o History of family violence was twice as likely to be present in cases where father killed a child (36%) than in cases where mother is accused (18%) o Familicide o When spouse and children are killed o Almost always committed by man o Accompanied by history of spousal and child abuse o Despondent non hostile killer  Depressed and worried about an impending disaster for himself or his family  Kills himself then kills his family  Past acts of violence toward family are not evident o Hostile accusatory killer
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