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SOC 3340 (8)
Chapter 4

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SOC 3340
Victor Ujimoto

Week 4 reading Chapter 4 – Education Revolutionized: the growth of modern schooling Beginnings of a schooled society - origins of schooling early Greek - Aristotle, Plato, Socrates all tutored - prior to 16 century Europe most school was church based - for centuries academic learned was the preserve of the clergy - school class: constituent cell of the school system - defining attributes of modern school: - most student sin a class are the same age - classes are organized progressively by knowledge level - classes meet in separate locations - a class is often set off by a particular time period - school class was first organized by level of knowledge (16 century) - students of varying ages – meet in one large room, drilled with the basics - once elementary material mastered – students progress to higher knowledge levels, still in a single room - school classes had come into existence to separate students according to their capacities and the difficulty of the subject-matter, not to separate students according to their ages - schools classes were initially organized by ability, not age - today – age-graded - the ages of students ay any grade level typically span only 2 years, and most are within months of each other - age-grading started in 19 century – educators began to worry about promoting young students too rapidly - 2 worries were central: 1) rushing students too fast and mixing students of different temperaments 2) older students were discouraged from remaining too long at the same grade level - In an increasingly strict age-graded system older students were out of place and so they began dropping out of school - early 1800s: schooling occurred mainly through family tutoring, private schools and religious schools - slowly a public system emerged – government funded - mid-century: a system of schooling had begun to emerge centrally controlled and regulated - 1871: children between 7-12 required to attend school for at least 4 months of the year - teacher certification was mandated and school inspections were instituted - parents and local groups decided on course of study, books, rules – decisions gradually became centralized under the control of the provincial Chief Superintendent of Common Schools - reasons: 1) economic/industrialization – school became essential to ensure a skilled and compliant labour force was available Week 4 reading 2) technical complexity – schooling necessary to ensure young people had the rudimentary skills essential for success in a world growing more complex 3) child susceptibility in a diverse world – school provided a venue to ensure children adopted a common value system 4) nation-building – school was part of a larger process of building an independent country - industrialization – rise of capitalism central cause - causality - mass schooling was in place well before large-scale industrialization - schooling now plays important role in labour force preparation, but industrialization was not a primary cause for the rise of mass schooling - many educators promoted schooling because of ‘the weakness and incapacity of the young’ - children seen as different from adults - school was a place for the learning of foundational moral values, strict discipline, and proper deportment - support came largely from government - mid 19 century schooling became centralized – governments controlling who would teach and what they would teach when - school inspection was prominent in the early days and truant officers were employed to ensure that everyone who was supposed to be there was there - the common school movement meant that all children could attend school, regardless of social class - government saw schools as an effective way to build a better society, instilling in everyone, no matter what their social class, common values and a strong work ethic enrolments and attendance: creating a universal experience - earliest public schools quite humble - mid-1800s: few schools were larger than a single house, employed more than a single teacher, or segregated children by age group - most teachers were minimally educated themselves - 1900 & rural locales – only a tiny fraction of students would complete high school - school was something to attend intermittently for 8 years or so, where they learned basic literacy and numeracy and received instruction in the rudiments of (Christian) religion and citizenship - 20 century: school populations exploded - provinces established departments of education, one-room school houses were gradually replaced with modern buildings of far more bureaucratic, standardized and institutional character - create a more uniform, ‘mass’ form of schooling - rationalized process of modern world – as per Max Weber - construction of new buildings, enrollment soared -new norms emerged - common for parents to enroll children in local schools, rural – not all did - enrolments not the same as actual school attendance Week 4 reading - beginning – many children didn’t attend full-time because they worked on family farms or did other labour - many didn’t teach to those under 7 - early 1930: just over half of 6 year olds in school and only 20% of 5 year olds - compulsory ages for schooling didn’t drop to age 5 and 6 til later - elementary schools didn’t offer most young people a common experience until 1930s - attendance more regular and predictable - most began at 6 - rate of change accelerated after 1950s and by 1960s full attendance in public elementary and high school was almost complete - drop out rates still almost at ½ - economic boom of the post-2 world war a new mindset emerged among policy- makers in Canada and elsewhere - actively promoted more schooling for long periods of life - concept of education as an economic engine for the nation began in earnest - human capital theory of educational investment first pro
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