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Chapter 6

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 3340
Professor
Victor Ujimoto
Semester
Fall

Description
Unequal student attainments: class, gender, and race Describing class inequalities: persisting disparities amid rising attainment  Is there more equality?  Short answer: no  Affluent youth always higher education and poor youth  Parental education, income, and occupational prestige – still strong predictors of children’s school success  Socio-economic gradient: statistical analysis of educational attainment in which students’ socio-economic backgrounds are seen to influence their school success Gender and attainment: equalizing in fractal form?  Not all forms of social inequality in schooling are invariant  Gender patterns have changed  Males once dominated most levels of schooling and high education was once mostly male perspective – has changed in some key areas  Began to change in 1950s  By 1987 more women were enrolled in full-time undergraduate university  Females now drop out of high school in fewer numbers, more in university and score higher on tests  Some fields have seen modest change  Some reversed  Few men moved to traditionally female fields – dominate in technical fields – engineering  Women towards more ‘nurturing’ – teacher, social work Racial and ethnic variations: beyond vertical mosaic and abella images  Schools more diverse than ever  Multi-racial, multicultural  Deeply stratified  Most education – those Canadian of British origin  Next – northern European ancestry – privileged by their physical and cultural resemblance to British majority  Abella image: conception of racial and ethnic inequality that is sharply dichotomized between whites and visible minorities, so-named after the report on employment equity by Canadian Judge Rosalie Abella Causes of inequality: schools, families, and environments  Resource inequalities had some impact on student outcomes, student achievement was much better predicted by students’ own family background – ses – parental education, job status, income etc  Student success more powerfully caused by family-based preparation for schooling than various school resources  Seasonal learning: a research technique that measures student characteristics near the beginning and near the end go the school year. These design attempt to isolate the impact of summer vacation, and thereby distinguish school effects from other influences
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