Week 1 chapter 1: from misguided children" to criminal youth". Canada has seen the child-welfare state eroded and replaced by a more legalistic justice crime-control model of juvenile justice. Youth criminal justice system: a term often used as a substitute for juvenile courts. Punishable youth offender: describes the discursive construction of some young offenders as troubled" and therefore needed intervention in the hope they can be rehabilitated. Canada"s own development have often been tied to other countries. Criminologists have been most influenced by the work of philippe aries, argued that modern childhood was. 2. idea of parens patriae: legal doctrine that the state has a duty to assume the role of a substitute parent who [the children] do not have parents who are adequate enough. 3. juvenile delinquents should be viewed as misguided children" and treated with friendly helpfulness". Judges were given discretionary power to treat these youth. The invention of the juvenile court in the united states.