3 different legislative regimes for administering juvenile justice: the juvenile delinquents act (1908), young offenders act (1984) and youth criminal justice act (2002) Juvenile courts: specialized courts first created in the late 19th century to apply juvenile justice laws in the care of dependent and delinquent children. Youth criminal justice system: a term used today substituted for juvenile courts. Creates a shifts towards treating young offenders more like adult offenders. Reformable young offender: a term coined by bryan hogeveen to describe the broad construction of some young offenders as troubled and therefore needing intervention in the hope they can be rehabilitated. Punishable young offender: (bryan hogeveen) describes the discursive construction as some young offenders as troublesome, and therefore requiring punishment in order to make them accountable for their criminal acts. Punitive turn thesis: the argument that in recent decades the criminal justice system in western countries have become more punishment oriented, with longer prison sentences and higher rates of incarceration.