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Chapter 15

SOC 3750 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Pan Am Flight 103, Motor Vehicle Theft, International Maritime Bureau

Course Code
SOC 3750
Michelle Dumas

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Policing and Society: Week Twelve
Policing the Globe: (Palmiotto) Pages 265-286
Thinking About Crime Globally:
People today are often referred to as living in a global society or global village (Globalization)- Which is
the increasing interconnectedness of the economies, peoples, and to a lesser extent, the politics of various
countries of the world-
When speaking of the global village metaphor, it is to describe one of potentially three processes:
1) Describing the movement of individuals from one country or world region to another for economic or
political reasons (Ireland to the United States)
2) Describing the economic globalization- (American airplanes being sold to Korea-Call centers in India
handling support services for computer owners in the United States)
3) Referring to international communication networks (involving telecommunications, multinational
satellite broadcasts)
Criminal behavior is conceived differently from society to society consisting of varied consequences- thus
we must be careful when trying to understand the meaning of crime globally-
Four aspects associated with this point:
1) Frequency of crimes varies-
Poorer countries experiencing lower crime rates
The Modernization Hypothesis- When a country undergoes economic development (industrialization, and
urbanization) its crime rate increases-
Poorer countries experience more crime as they undergo a process of becoming modern
2) Economic Development will bring about their own set of crime problems
Increase availability and use of automobiles as a result of economic growth results in a rise in motor
vehicle theft as a form of crime in society-
3) Only with affluence that people come to conceive of certain things as problems-
Views regarding slavery and indentured servitude- often seen as preindustrial societies-
In contemporary societies, these practices are universally condemned and criminalized-

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4) Developed affluent societies may be more “at risk” to the consequences of specific criminal event and to
crime in general
Minor Criminal event vs a Major Criminal event-
Comparing what a burglar could steal from a poor peasants home in an undeveloped country vs what could
be stolen from a middle-class household in a developed country-
The range, value and number of possessions in the latter case are going to be larger-
Transnational Crime: Global forms of crime and disorder that call for a police response involving more
than one sovereign nation-
International Crime: Major criminal offenses, so designed by the community of nations for the protection
of interests common to all mankind, such as genocide and mass human right violations-
Transnational Forms of Crime:
Mueller: Transnational crimes consisting of “offences, whose inception, prevention and or direct or
indirect effects involved more than one country”
Mueller: While it is possible for individuals to commit transnational crimes, such offences usually involve
organized activity of some sort-
Money Laundering: Process used by criminals to convert funds acquired illegally (by selling illegal drugs,
proceeds obtained by disposing stolen goods, or as a result of bribery) into what appears to be legitimate
income that can be used for legal purposes such as investment purposes-
Financial institutions are regulated by national governments, doing this in two countries, (depositing money
stolen from Uzbekistan in a Swiss bank account) has clear advantages-
Illegal Drug Trafficking: Involves the movement of mood-altering substances (opium, cocaine) from their
points of origin to their points of consumption-
Growth of opium poppy in Afghanistan and coca in Columbia, and their export to the United States where
they are consumed in the forms of Heroin and Cocaine=Transnational Crime-
Police agencies at all levels: national (Drug Enforcement Administration), state (Highway Patrol), and local
(Joint Drug Task Forces) are involved in responding-
Corruption and Bribery: In the global economy, corporations operate in many different countries and
under different guises- (Computer chips produced in Taiwan and Malaysia power computers that are sold
with the Apple and popular names)
Many countries, in order to obtain exporting licenses or permits and contracts, government officials local to

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national often ask and receive bribes-other companies are then forced to compete which leads to a
pervasive, corrupt economic and business environment-
Infiltration of Legal Business: Buying a legal business may be deemed criminal, if it is used as a means
for laundering money that may be acquired illegally-
(Organized crime group may buy a number of automobile dealerships-the purchase is financed through
drug trafficking profits that are thereby laundered-dealerships could serve as “fronts” for the disposal of
stolen automobiles)-
Eventually turning into legitimate business owners-
Fraudulent Bankruptcy: A business that has been infiltrated by an organized crime group may declare
bankruptcy for its subsidiary in a given country, while remaining profitable elsewhere-
May be part of a deliberate strategy to move assets and money elsewhere and to intentionally defund and
close down a given unit-
Bankruptcy is not due to an adverse business climate-but it defrauds the host country of revenue and taxes,
and its citizens of employment-
Insurance Fraud: Individuals scam insurance companies by filing fraudulent claims- staged accidents,
exaggerated injuries, questionable property loss, and higher medical bills-
Some scams can also operate internationally since many insurance companies do so-(Multinational
corporation can claim insurance losses suffered at a foreign plant, which may have been deliberately faked)
Also able for fraudulent insurance companies to collect premiums from customers in one country as
payment for policies they falsely claim are needed-
Computer Crime: Connected through the world wide web that enables individuals to connect with others
across the globe- form of communication serves as a mean for committing transnational crime-
Illegal downloading of copyrighted material, software, music, books, and movies, the internet facilitates the
spread of disabling computer viruses and allows individuals to hack into supposedly secure networks that
hold personal, governmental or commercial information.
Pornography, gambling, confidence games-allows for the gathering of networks
Requires great deal of ingenuity and versatility on part of the law enforcement in terms of learning, and
Intellectual Property Crime: Theft of copyright material-music CD’s and movie DVD’s can be mass
produced in one country cheaply and illegally, and then sold in another at a price that does not include any
profit for the company that originally commissioned the work-
Most victims of intellectual property theft are likely to be looking for recompense, and not criminal
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