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Chapter 15

Policing & Society: Chapter 15.doc

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University of Guelph
SOC 3750
Michelle Dumas

Policing and Society: Week Twelve Policing the Globe: (Palmiotto) Pages 265-286 Thinking About Crime Globally:  People today are often referred to as living in a global society or global village (Globalization)- Which is the increasing interconnectedness of the economies, peoples, and to a lesser extent, the politics of various countries of the world-  When speaking of the global village metaphor, it is to describe one of potentially three processes:  1) Describing the movement of individuals from one country or world region to another for economic or political reasons (Ireland to the United States)  2) Describing the economic globalization- (American airplanes being sold to Korea-Call centers in India handling support services for computer owners in the United States)  3) Referring to international communication networks (involving telecommunications, multinational satellite broadcasts)  Criminal behavior is conceived differently from society to society consisting of varied consequences- thus we must be careful when trying to understand the meaning of crime globally-  Four aspects associated with this point:  1) Frequency of crimes varies-  Poorer countries experiencing lower crime rates  The Modernization Hypothesis- When a country undergoes economic development (industrialization, and urbanization) its crime rate increases-  Poorer countries experience more crime as they undergo a process of becoming modern  2) Economic Development will bring about their own set of crime problems  Increase availability and use of automobiles as a result of economic growth results in a rise in motor vehicle theft as a form of crime in society-  3) Only with affluence that people come to conceive of certain things as problems-  Views regarding slavery and indentured servitude- often seen as preindustrial societies-  In contemporary societies, these practices are universally condemned and criminalized-  4) Developed affluent societies may be more “at risk” to the consequences of specific criminal event and to crime in general  Minor Criminal event vs a Major Criminal event-  Comparing what a burglar could steal from a poor peasants home in an undeveloped country vs what could be stolen from a middle-class household in a developed country-  The range, value and number of possessions in the latter case are going to be larger-  Transnational Crime: Global forms of crime and disorder that call for a police response involving more than one sovereign nation- VS.  International Crime: Major criminal offenses, so designed by the community of nations for the protection of interests common to all mankind, such as genocide and mass human right violations- Transnational Forms of Crime:  Mueller: Transnational crimes consisting of “offences, whose inception, prevention and or direct or indirect effects involved more than one country”  Mueller: While it is possible for individuals to commit transnational crimes, such offences usually involve organized activity of some sort-  Money Laundering: Process used by criminals to convert funds acquired illegally (by selling illegal drugs, proceeds obtained by disposing stolen goods, or as a result of bribery) into what appears to be legitimate income that can be used for legal purposes such as investment purposes-  Financial institutions are regulated by national governments, doing this in two countries, (depositing money stolen from Uzbekistan in a Swiss bank account) has clear advantages-  Illegal Drug Trafficking: Involves the movement of mood-altering substances (opium, cocaine) from their points of origin to their points of consumption-  Growth of opium poppy in Afghanistan and coca in Columbia, and their export to the United States where they are consumed in the forms of Heroin and Cocaine=Transnational Crime-  Police agencies at all levels: national (Drug Enforcement Administration), state (Highway Patrol), and local (Joint Drug Task Forces) are involved in responding-  Corruption and Bribery: In the global economy, corporations operate in many different countries and under different guises- (Computer chips produced in Taiwan and Malaysia power computers that are sold with the Apple and popular names)  Many countries, in order to obtain exporting licenses or permits and contracts, government officials local to national often ask and receive bribes-other companies are then forced to compete which leads to a pervasive, corrupt economic and business environment-  Infiltration of Legal Business: Buying a legal business may be deemed criminal, if it is used as a means for laundering money that may be acquired illegally-  (Organized crime group may buy a number of automobile dealerships-the purchase is financed through drug trafficking profits that are thereby laundered-dealerships could serve as “fronts” for the disposal of stolen automobiles)-  Eventually turning into legitimate business owners-  Fraudulent Bankruptcy: A business that has been infiltrated by an organized crime group may declare bankruptcy for its subsidiary in a given country, while remaining profitable elsewhere-  May be part of a deliberate strategy to move assets and money elsewhere and to intentionally defund and close down a given unit-  Bankruptcy is not due to an adverse business climate-but it defrauds the host country of revenue and taxes, and its citizens of employment-  Insurance Fraud: Individuals scam insurance companies by filing fraudulent claims- staged accidents, exaggerated injuries, questionable property loss, and higher medical bills-  Some scams can also operate internationally since many insurance companies do so-(Multinational corporation can claim insurance losses suffered at a foreign plant, which may have been deliberately faked)  Also able for fraudulent insurance companies to collect premiums from customers in one country as payment for policies they falsely claim are needed-  Computer Crime: Connected through the world wide web that enables individuals to connect with others across the globe- form of communication serves as a mean for committing transnational crime-  Illegal downloading of copyrighted material, software, music, books, and movies, the internet facilitates the spread of disabling computer viruses and allows individuals to hack into supposedly secure networks that hold personal, governmental or commercial information.  Pornography, gambling, confidence games-allows for the gathering of networks  Requires great deal of ingenuity and versatility on part of the law enforcement in terms of learning, and prevention-  Intellectual Property Crime: Theft of copyright material-music CD’s and movie DVD’s can be mass produced in one country cheaply and illegally, and then sold in another at a price that does not include any profit for the company that originally commissioned the work-  Most victims of intellectual property theft are likely to be looking for recompense, and not criminal punishment and therefore not generally likely to involve police agencies-  Illicit Arms Trafficking: Legitimate producers of weaponry and other arms for military purposes are authorized to sell their wares by the government of the country where they are located to other specific countries-  Illegal trade in arms is performed by a small group of wholesalers, assisted by larger groups of retailers located at relatively few illicit arms trading hubs-  Worrisome: Weaponry being trafficked and potentially falling into the hands of rogue governments and terrorist groups-using them on their fellow citizens, destabilizing their country, or against other countries-  Terrorism: The intentional and indiscriminate use of cruelty against the killing of public targets for the purpose of spreading fear and to advance political or social objectives-  The events that took place on 9/11- Guerrillas in Sri Lanka  Preventing and dealing with the threats posed by terrorism while simultaneously maintaining traditions of dissent and free speech as well as operating without violating human rights remain at the crux of the dilemma-  Aircraft Hijacking: Illegal commandeering of airplanes for the purpose of either demanding ransom payments or making a political statement  Example: D.B. Cooper in the 1970’s who jumped out of a plane using a parachute with ransom money- Pan Am Flight 103 that exploded over Scotland, killing all its passengers-  Frequency of hijacking has declined due to mainly the increased security procedures at airports after 9/11-  Sea Piracy: International Maritime Bureau- “Piracy is the act of boarding any vessel with an intent to commit theft or any other crime, and with an intent or capacity to use force in furtherance of that act”  In most incidents of piracy, pirates intercept ships during their voyages on the high seas, or while waiting to dock at various ports and loot them for money, goods and other valuables-  Central and South America, South East Asia and West Africa-  Governments are often unable or unwilling to patrol and police the seas to prevent them- Joint patrols utilizing the navies and coast guard units of neighboring countries are often carried out to prevent or arrest privates-  Hijacking on Land: Involving delivery trucks carrying shipments of merchandise is rarely spoken of-  The term hijack-meaning forcible robbery from, or seizure of a vehicle in transit- was originally meant to denote land based crimes of such kind-  Porous borders (European Union, African borders) and the complicity of bribed border guards and government officials obviously contribute to the growth of this transnational crime-  Crime of this nature is a particular interest to highway patrol-  Human Trafficking: The recruitment, transportation or receipt of persons through deception or coercion for the purposes of prostitution or other sexual exploitation or forced labor-  Women from Russia and other European countries who are forced into prostitution-  Human Smuggling: The procurement of illegal entry of a person into a state of which the latter person is not a national with the objective of making a profit-  Individuals may choose to flout legal rules of transferring into one country and enter a given country illegally and may sometimes receive the assistance of organized criminal groups that do this for payment-  Human Organ Trafficking: There is a thriving illegal international trade in human organs (kidney, livers, lungs, and hearts) which pairs those buying (an individual who can afford the money needed and is willing to travel to another country to have a kidney transplant performed) and those who are selling (another individual who is poor and in desperate need of the money gained from allowing the removal of a kidney)  Art and Cultural Object Theft: Fine arts objects (paintings, rare books, sculptures) are the form of property stolen in the first category- The second (Cultural) refers to the theft of antiques and other objects, that may be found in a museum devoted to a nation’s history of its culture (Stealing the original copy of the United States Declaration of Independence)  Overlap between the two categories-piece of fine art may also be considered an important part of a country’s heritage (1911, when someone stole the Mona Lisa painting from the Louvre in Paris)  INTERPOL- The International Criminal Police Organization-  According to INTERPOL-the art black market in among the top three largest international criminal enterprises-  Insurance investigators and private detectives (holding knowledge of the world of art and cultural objects) are often employed in trafficking the stolen items-  Environmental Crime: Environmentalists have long decried the exploitation, degradation, and depletion that humans have visited upon these irreplaceable natural resources- forests, rivers, seas, species)  Illegal trade of protected endangered species (rhinoceros which is killed for its horns)  Hazardous wastes are dispose in other countries, often oblivious to their effects on the land and water-  Ozone depletion substances (chlorofluorocarbons or CFC’s) continue to be produced and sold, wreaking havoc on our atmosphere-  Illegal Logging- cutting down of irreplaceable and old growth forests continues in various parts of the world where local leadership may be powerless or corrupt-  Unless countries work together, it is virtually impossible to deal with this important form of transnational crime that threatens the very environment we live and breathe Global Policing Against Transnational Crime:  Sheptycki- “Policing is no longer a set of practices embedded in the sovereign nation-state, but rather has become trans-nationalized and greatly differentiated”  Example: Police in one country are often called upon to assist other countries in forming and training their own police forces-  Di Gennaro- The past twenty years there has been a growing preoccupation with transnational crime-the practical outcome in terms of action against transnational crime is depressing in that it has been lacking-  EUROPOL- European Office of Police-the establishment of such organization was a step forward and a firm integration between the national police forces-  INTERPOL- International Criminal Police Organization-arguably the most discussed and least understood national police organization- formed as a result of deliberations at the International Police Congress in Vienna in 1923-  Consists of 182 member countries and is financed by their governments through annual contributions- governed by a secretary general as its chief executive-elected by nomination by an executive committee for
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