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SOC 3750 (50)
Chapter 6

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SOC 3750
Bill O' Grady

Chapter 6 Canadian Girls Patterns of crime and trends in Juvenile Justice  lower rates of violence and aggression in recent years  increased media on girl violence is socially constructed Canadian Judicial Responses to Female Youth Crime Official Charges  only 3 percent of all Canadians charged and brought to the court in 2006 were girls  one if five youth charged are girls - to 1:3.5  changing enforcement and laws are what influenced the rise in crime of youth girls, not actually offending  female assault up  boys has noticeably declined, while girls have only dipped a little - narrows the gap  girls charged with minor theft at double rate than boys - YCJA targets that behaviour - results in lower sentenced rates  most frequent charge resulting in a court appearance for girls is minor assault, than theft and administrative offences - amount to 60% of female charges in court  media is performing a strong social control Administrative offences  large increase in girls being charged with administrative offenses  perhaps used unfairly against girls  judges were adding more strict probation orders - contributed to people breaking them  administrative offences were used to keep girls off unsafe streets and out of sex work The Youth Criminal Justice Act  YCJA's post custody supervision would increase admin offenses Current responses have led to an overrepresentation of Aboriginal Girls  represented 44 percent of the female youth in custody in 08/09  aboriginal youth females strongly over represented in custody  aboriginal females are strongly over represented for admin offenses Court decisions and Dispositions  increase in remand in female - decrease in custody  most common disposition is probation  community service can also be added- but strongly contributes to admin offenses  preemptive offenses - send a youth 14 and up to adult court for serious cases Theories of Female Crime and Delinquency  females were rarely considered before the 70's, and if they were, it focused on the gender gap in crime - why females committed less crime in comparison  feminism has not contributed to a rise in female delinquency  was used to be considered to only be in relation to boys, and explained as a masculine thing Biological Theories  biology was destiny  Lombroso said that if females did become criminals, it was because they were degenerate and unwomanly  PMS has been blamed for female criminality  Konopka was one of the first to directly turn to adolescent girls and examine them and their involvement in delinquency - did emphasize a double standard - but still maintained it was biological  recent bio theories discuss how aggression is biology rather than learned  aggression and violence must be unlearned  Tremblay - low levels of serotonin implicated in impulsive and aggressive behaviour  use of sociology to shift what is biologically given  learning to control aggression in childhood  Kenneth Dodge and Gregory Pettit - biopsychosocial model - explains chronic anti social and delinquent behaviour in adolescents - shows us we need to pay attention to the reciprocal influences of biological, socio-cultural contexts of behaviour - biological dispositions influenced by prenatal factors - such as being exposed to toxic substances - along with autonomic nervous system hyperactivity, intelligence potential, and temperament can be mediated positively or negatively in a child's life b y socio-cultural context variables  variables include, family income, occupation and education, family atmosphere, - and positive or negative peer, school, and neighbourhood influences  Fishbein, Miller, winn, and Dakof - the most salient biological disposition and vulnerability for delinquency appears to be in early pubertal maturation  early maturing girls = more likely, but dependent on a lot of social factors; and includes biological factors  mental illness and comobidity is extremely high in delinquent girls Sociological and Gender role Theories  Gender role theories- explain the difference in male and female participation in delinquent behaviour as the outcome of differential gender socialization that imposes higher moral expectations and greater social controls on girls and women  three mainstream sociological approaches to crime and delinquency that fit with a gender role analysis are -- differential association and social learning theories - social control theories - strain theories Social Learning and Differential Association Theories  Kruttschnitt and Giodarno - kids suffer negative consequences from family conflict, harsh and coercive parenting , and other problematic emotional family dynamics - including exposure to crime by family members  girls learn that being nice and good have enormous social values, so likely play a role in decreasing delinquency in the future - if they do not get this socialization, more likely to become delinquent  Krutt and Giodarno also point to problematic family contexts, inconsistent and harsh discipline, abuse, l
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