SOC 3750 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Crime In Canada, Shared Experience, Critical Role

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Published on 20 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 3750
Professor
Chapter 10
Chapter 10 - ABORIGINAL YOUTH CRIME IN CANADA
aboriginal - includes individuals who identify as First Nations, Métis or Inuit
values - a collective conception of what is considered proper/improper, desirable/undesirable,
good/bad in a culture
Understanding the Complexities of Aboriginal Youth Crime
two main features
o shared experience of aboriginal peoples - historically, culturally, socially and
economically
relation with settlers: racism, broken treaties, assimilation attempts,
domination
o intergenerational trauma - repercussions felt in daily lives of Aboriginal youth
poverty, underemployment, family violence, high rates of substance abuse,
poor health, overrepresentation in the criminal justice system and experience of
racism and discrimination
criminalization --> the process whereby individuals are assigned the label of ‘criminal’
Historical Context
Broken Relations and Promises
historical problems of many Aboriginals stem directly from assimilation
colonization --> refers to historical and ongoing processes that began with arrival of Europeans
to the country and that include attempts to dominate and assimilate indigenous peoples
historical policies aimed at ‘civilizing’ and ‘assimilating’ Aboriginal peoples have created a legacy
of ‘violence, fear, abandonment, loss, neglect, economic hardship, discrimination and
displacement
o these disadvantages create self-identity issues and frustration for Aboriginal youth
Traumatization
linking traumatic experiences to history is essential to understanding the issues of Aboriginal
youth face today
all they have is shitty self-identity because a positive one had been diminished by colonialism
o various policies, programs and activities that government implemented over the history
of colonization have undermined Aboriginal traditions, identity and social cohesion
post-colonial stress expressed through addiction, depression, health problems, suicide and
violence
o because those stepped in imperial ideology believed without question in their
superiority over the Indigenous people, neither the regime nor colonial society in
general was willing to welcome them into the midst
to do so would have required tolerance for difference, and the colonizers
interpreted difference as evidence of inferiority
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in urban settings, the experience of Aboriginal persons involves inadequate housing, limited
education, lack of cultural awareness, unemployment, alcohol abuse and discrimination
Educational and Socio-economic Implications of Crime
individual’s experience of school varies greatly according to a two-pronged set of factors
o personal characteristics - gender, social class, religious creed, ethnicity
affect students’ objective chances of academic success
also impact on the subjective experience of school (attitudes toward the
institution)
o education systems differ according to the context and culture they’re located in
mostly based on academic or vocational streams of Judeo-Christian values
Aboriginals have higher unemployment rates than other ethnic groups in Canada
o more likely to live in crowded conditions and have higher residential mobility
o kids are more likely to be members of single-parent family
o lower levels of education
o marginalization--> the partial exclusion from mainstream society, and the social
inequalities that accompany it, experienced by certain social groups
Contemporary Context
Victimization: A Statistical Profile
trauma → the community-level and individual-level damage, pain and suffering of indigenous
peoples - physically, emotionally, spiritually and psychically - as a result of the historical and
current process of colonization
victimization → the experience of being a victim, which can be linked to future criminalization
o the link is quite significant
most reports focus on the role of Aboriginal youth as offenders rather than the victims
historical, cultural and economic factors experienced by Aboriginal youth are different and
unique
o “these factors limit application of the non-Aboriginal research, programs and policy to
Aboriginal youth-at-risk
‘while Aboriginal youth often become engaged in criminality, their involvement is often a
component of their continued victimization
Criminalization: A Statistical Profile
victimization in the form of family violence and abuse, bullying and other types of assault is far
too common for too many Aboriginal youth
(Fig 10.3) - shows that Aboriginal youth are more likely to receive sentences that are restrictive
and that they are overrepresented in custody dispositions
The problem is systemic - Canadian Criminal Justice Association reports:
o Aboriginal accused are more likely to be denied bail
o more time is spent in pretrial detention by Aboriginal people
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Document Summary

Chapter 10 - aboriginal youth crime in canada aboriginal - includes individuals who identify as first nations, m tis or inuit values - a collective conception of what is considered proper/improper, desirable/undesirable, good/bad in a culture. Poverty, underemployment, family violence, high rates of substance abuse, poor health, overrepresentation in the criminal justice system and experience of racism and discrimination criminalization --> the process whereby individuals are assigned the label of criminal". Historical problems of many aboriginals stem directly from assimilation colonization --> refers to historical and ongoing processes that began with arrival of europeans to the country and that include attempts to dominate and assimilate indigenous peoples. Historical policies aimed at civilizing" and assimilating" aboriginal peoples have created a legacy of violence, fear, abandonment, loss, neglect, economic hardship, discrimination and displacement these disadvantages create self-identity issues and frustration for aboriginal youth. Mostly based on academic or vocational streams of judeo-christian values.

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