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Chapter 13

SOC 3750 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Child Protective Services, Social Control Theory, Exhibitionism

Course Code
SOC 3750
Bill O' Grady

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Chapter 13
Sexual exploitation --> the abuse of children and youth by exchanging sexual activity for money,
drugs and/or basic needs
Factors Leading to ‘Under the Radar’: The Sexual Exploitation of Young Men
young men are invisible and ignored in the issue of sexual exploitation
typically viewed as criminals, often charged with prostitution-related offences
o Most likely under section 213 of the Criminal Code (Box 13-1)
Most were forced or coerced into the sex trade by an adult
Most viewed it as a means for survival, and not a choice
customer --> an individual who is a consumer and pursues the opportunity to purchase activity
from a sex-trade worker
experiential --> refers to an individual who has worked and lived the lifestyle of a sex-trade
Consultations with Youth in Care Networks
national Youth and Care Network --> an organization run by youth and former youth from
government care who advocate for youth in care
o outcome of a national movement in ‘85
o vision was to develop a network that would connect their peers from all provinces and
territories so they would know they weren’t alone
It’s clear that at some point these young men were failed by the very people who were
supposed to care for them
Key Demographics from Study
Key risk factors involved
o Aboriginal Heritage
o Involvement with Child Protective Services
had not received adequate info on sexual development or health while growing
o Education
young men were more likely to drop out of school than women
less than a quarter of dropouts are Aboriginal young men
just over half of them grew up in government care
o Running away
generally reflects distress/conflict in the family
many interviewed said their first introduction to hustling/working in the sexual
exploitation trade occurred while they were ‘on the run’ and trying to survive
o Getting thrown out
the loss of family and community support encourages street youth to identify
more strongly with other street people

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respondents indicated various reasons for being thrown out
ranged from not fitting in socially, spiritually, sexually or culturally
Sexual and physical violation
sexual abuse and exploitation involves using a child for sexual purposes
fondling, inviting a child to touch or be touched sexually, intercourse,
rape, incest, sodomy, exhibitionism, involving a child in prostitution or
many had a history of sexual abuse prior to their involvement with the sex trade
Witnessing aggression while growing up
involvement with police
79% of respondents reported having a background involvement with the police
either family of origin, involvement in general community, or
involvement with streets
The Work Life/Hustling of Sexually Exploited Young Men
Entering the Sexual Exploitation Trade
reasons for entering into sexual exploitation results from complex, myriad personal and
impersonal factors
o mostly needs to survive - none reported a ‘goal’ to enter into, or remain involved with
the sexual exploitation trade
most saw it as a short-term method to make money
Others said they wanted to feel wanted and belong to a culture/peer group
o most ‘on the run’ said they felt isolated, a sense of ‘anomie’ from their families and
communities - this led them closer to the sex trade
many felt compromised, strange or immoral in what they were doing
o but through involvement, found a camaraderie and acceptance they hadn’t previously
known or that had been missing from their lives
social control theory - deviance as a way of attaching and belonging, as a means of commitment
and involvement
some learned the ‘protocol’ of sex work by observing others and mimicking their actions
o young men from study spoke about how they just fell into the surroundings of the
sexual exploitation trade
Age at Beginning Hustling/Working
Table 13.1 - Under the Radar - The Sexual Exploitation of Young Men in Western Canada, 2009
Age Started
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