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IPC Chapter 12
- 3.6% of the Canadian population is aboriginals
- Status Indian: 59.9% of the aboriginal population
- Non-status Indians: 15.9%
- Metis: 20%
- Inuit (Eskimo) 5.2% of aboriginal population
- impossible to speak of the aboriginal population as one community because of so many diverse traditions and
Policing OFF Reserves:
- ten urban centres have over 5,000 aboriginals
- issues of policing are often linked to greater issues of multiculturalism, recognized by some as the greatest
challenge currently facing police organizations so recruiting is now more ethnically diverse, cross-cultural
relations, consultative groups aimed at minorities include the attempts to address the possible issues
Policing ON Reserves:
- 700 Aboriginal officers employed
- the use of Non-native RCMP officers to administer the law on reserves and creation of Native police forces to
patrol reserves have been two issues of particular attention
- concerns relating to on-reserve and small Aboriginal community policing
Aboriginal People and The Criminal Justice System:
- three concerns have been recognized in this area:
- the over-representation of Aboriginal people within the criminal justice system
- equity of treatment: the extent to which Natives are treated fairly and justly
- equality of service: access to policing services that meet acceptable norms and standards
- Aboriginal population are the highest levels of offenders in the criminal justice system
- accusations of being over-policed or mis-policed
- their over-representation is associated with a function of a low socio-economic status than race
- Joson states that Aboriginals went through several problems: deprived of their lands, subjected to breakup of
the family structures, culture suppressed, and spiritual traditions destroyed. Geared towards goals of
Western Policing Philosophies vs. Traditional Aboriginal Policing in Philosophies:
- Police aims to deter, apprehend and charge offenders. The police are organized hierarchical as a para-
military bureaucracy and stress is on crime fighting and law enforcement. This is challenged by the advent of
community policing community policing, it is remains largely intact.
- Aboriginal communities tend to reside in remote, rural areas and are structured to respond to crime and
deviance in traditional ways: reciprocal constraints, focusing on responsibilities not individual rights,...unlike the
western it is consensual, communitiarian and holistic: the process it not hierarchical and adversarial l but rather
consensual and problem solving. Healing and reparation but not punishment are the outcomes. Peacekeeping
is viewed as approximate means to solve issues. With purpose to restore harmony within the community and to
reconcile the accused with the slighted party and his/her own conscience. The belief is that here is not need for
external forced as one is guided by conscience.
- colonization process and the diverse nature of the Aboriginal communities in Canada has meant that both the
Anglo-European-based and Aboriginal-based criminal justice systems process have been subject to changing
environmental demands and pressures.
- One big win for Aboriginals was when the federal government recognized their inherent right to self-govern.
This seems to be the underlying reason to all issues: autonomous policing.
Colonial History of Aboriginal Policing:
- 1850s, colonial administrators found it necessary to draw on local expertise on policing. The 1867 Canadian
constitution assigned resp. for Indians and reserved lands to the federal government; it was a federal concern
to police the Aboriginals. Until late 1960s, Aboriginal communities were policed under federal police force.
- 1912, senior RCMP members finally decided to giver Aboriginals their independence under the provisions of
the Indian Act. Finally, in 1950, these recommendations for given consideration by Edmonton and Lethbridge
Policing Developments: 1960s to 1970s
- time of awakening for Aboriginals as they finally demanded input into policies