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Chapter 3

ANTH 1220 Chapter 3: Topic 22
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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTH 1220
Professor
Ellen R.Judd
Semester
Winter

Description
Oc78 Cities challenges: maintaining order (police), resolving disputes (judiciallaw), distribution of food (market economy vs. dictated), transportation system (wagonscarts), disposal of human waste, restricting behaviour o Hammurabi 1750 BCE, wheel vehicle 3500 BCE Earliest Civilization Mesopotamia Between Tigris and Euphrates rivers Sumer, Ur, Uruk, Babylon cradle of civilization Uruk Period Mudbrick houses (35003000 BCE 10 000 people) Urbanism large capital, fortified walls, 100 000 people Hyper urbanism 80+ urban, 8090 people food producers, cities, religioncraftcommerce Irrigation Change in food production (increases and stable) Rich flood plain becomes salt encrusted desert Irrigation canals construction requires labourorganization greater productivity Sumerian Religion Gods (landowners), humans (servants), humans impersonate Gods in ritual, fear punishments Elite born into social class, Ur cemetery 162000 graves are elite burials arly Dynastic Period Sumerian Civilization 30002300 BCE, 20 citystates, each with own temple and territory Why Did StateLevel Societies Develop? Conflict needed chief to resolve fights Integration society becomes more complex over time How to identify a state archaeologically Decision making hierarchies King (city), Governor (town), Chief (village), Family leader (Hamlet) o 4 tiered hierarchy Settlement patterns site size Fulltime craft specialization metallurgy (copper, bronze, silver, gold)
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