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Chapter 4

ANTH 1220 Chapter 4: Topic 31

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University of Manitoba
ANTH 1220
Ellen R.Judd

oS82 Miocene (235 MYA) Coolerdrier, grasslands spread in middle latitudes Major forests disappear, major radiation of grazing mammals Hominoids appear and diversify Small apes then dryopithecus and sivapithecus Pliocene (51.9 MYA) Great climatic fluctuations Glaciations begin Homininshumans appear and diversify in Africa @ least 3 geni (Ardipithecus, Australopithecus and Homo) = bushy evolution Pleistocene (1.9MYA10TYA) 3 sub periods Lower (1.9MYA730TYA) middle (730125 TYA) upper (12510 TYA) Glaciations more pronounced Humans spread out of Africa and into AsiaEurope, new world, Australia Holocene (last 10 TY) Another warm interglacial of Pleistocene Warmest period = 5 TYA Global warming only delays inevitable Cultural Paleolithic (2.5 MYA12 TYA) st Appearance of stone tools = 1 cultural behavior Old stone age (lower, middle, upper) Mesolithic (1210 TYA = 10 0008000 BCE) Middle stone age Short transition period End of last glaciation, appearance of microlithics (small stone tools) Neolithic (107TYA = 80005000 BCE) New stone age beginning of food production Ground stone tools, sickle sheen on stone blades Bronze Age (53 TYA = 30001000 BCE) Metal tools Near East (Sumerians, Akkadians, Hittites) Indus valley Harappa Egypt oldmiddlenew kingdom
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