Fieldwork: research in the field, which is any place where people and culture are found. Armchair anthropology: research conducted through the sitting and reading about other cultures; indirect experience; used by early cultural anthropologists. Verandah anthropology: research conducted by living near the people being studied but not with them. Introduced by bronislaw malinowski: considered father of participant observation. Key elements include: living with people, learning the language, participating in their everyday life. Multisided research: fieldwork conducted in more than one location in order to understand the behaviours and ideas of dispersed members of a culture or the relationships among different levels such as state policy and local culture. Finding a topic for a research project is a first step. Anthropologists often find a topic to research by carrying out a literature review, or reading what others have already written. A research proposal is usually required for consideration by the funding source.