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Chapter 17

BIOL 1000 Chapter 17: Biology Chapter 17

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1000
Kevin G.Scott

Biology Chapter 17: Overview: The flow of genetic information The information content of DNA is in the form of specific sequences of nucleotides The DNA inherited in an organism leads to specific traits by dictating the synthesis of proteins Proteins are the links between genotype and phenotype Gene expression, the process by which DNA directs protein synthesis, includes two stages: transcription and translation The products of gene expression: A developing story One geneone polypeptide hypothesis Note that it is common to refer to gene products as proteins rather than polypeptides sometimes proteins need more than one polypeptide Transcription takes place in the nucleus in eukaryotic cell: o DNA gets transcribed from DNA to premRNA o PremRNA undergoes RNA processing to become functioning mRNA mRNA leaves the nucleus and meets with ribosome o At the ribosome mRNA is translated to produce polypeptide Basic principles of transcription and translation RNA is the intermediate between genes and the proteins for which they code Transcription is the synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA Transcription produces messenger RNA Translation is the synthesis of a polypeptide, which occurs under the direction of mRNA Ribosomes are the sites of translation In prokaryotes, mRNA produced by transcription is immediately translated without more processing In a eukaryotic cell, the nuclear envelope separates transcription from translation
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