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CHEM 1310 (1)

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CHEM 1310
Sarrah Vakili

Spontaneous vs Nonspontaneous • Spontaneous – Process or action that continues to occur without external stimulus once the action has been started – Reactions do not require constant input to occur • Non-spontaneous – Process or action that requires constant external stimulus to continue – Reactions require constant input to occur • If a process is spontaneous then the reverse process is nonspontaneous Entropy (S) • Is a state function with specified temperature, pressure and compositions • Measure of energy at a microscopic level – Particles may enter into energy levels/states different ways based upon the amount of energy in the system – The more energy, the more states partially filled and the larger the amount of entropy – Based on Boltzmann’s equation (S = k ln W) and particles-in-a-box • In general: – Increased T increased entropy – Increased # gas molecules by reaction increased entropy – Increased disorder/motions increased entropy (Practice) Example: Entropy (S) • Calculation of entropy – For a reversible reaction: • A reaction that may change direction with a very, very smal
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