Food security: Access by all people at all times to nutritionally adequate, safe, personally
acceptable foods from normal food channels.
The Four Pillars of Food Security Are:
Availability: Sufficient amount at all times, and variety at a reasonable cost. This is affected by
time of year/season, civil conflict/war, food preservation and supply.
Accessibility: determined by entitlements (the bundle of resources needed to acquire food).
Accessibility is affected by:
Production and marketing systems
Gender and power relations within the household
Adequacy (provide nourishment): Adequacy is affected by:
• Control over resources
• Nutrient content of the food/quality
• Information about food/nutrition
Acceptability: refers to food that is:
Acquired by a socially-acceptable means of obtaining food
Hunger in Developed Countries
The main cause of hunger in developed countries like Canada is food poverty. Although
enough food exists in the area, it cannot be obtained because of:
Lack of money: to buy nutritious foods and pay for other necessities like housing, clothing,
medications, utilities… often food is the sacrifice made
Political reasons: up to 8-% of hungry children live in countries that produce surplus food, but
the decisions of policy makers in those areas, largely determines who in the population has
access to the food.
Countries of war: food transportation may be limited. Also, have other concerns beyond
Lack of transportation: can they get to a store to access food?
Cannot afford: may be on welfare (prices have increased, but welfare moneys have stayed fairly
constant), or may be part of working poor (not on welfare because working, but ay too
low to meet needs).
To stretch meager food supplies, adults often:
◦ Skip meals or cut their portions
◦ May be forced to break social rules: beg from strangers, steal from markets, scavenge through
garbage cans, may even harvest dead animals from roadside. Can lead to dangerous food
May rely on foods with low nutrient density, but high calorie density, so calorie needs are met, but
not nutritional needs. Inexpensive foods like white bread, mac and cheese, pastas.
Diet tend to be low in fruit and vegetables, milk product and meats/protein.
• According to the link above:
“About 1/3 of the global food supply is lost or wasted every year. Food is lost or wasted at