during processing - enrichment)
e.g., iodine added to salt, vitamins A and D added to milk, folic acid and other B
vitamins added to breakfast cereals.
Indirect (Incidental) Food Additives:
E.g. pieces of glass, plastic, paper, metal, packaging, etc.
Accidentally introduced during processing
E.g. in November of 2011, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency issued a Health Hazard
Alert for Woody's brand Mexican Lime Alcoholic Vodka Beverages because they may
have contained glass fragments.
a. Methylene chloride
Used to remove caffeine in the production of decaffeinated tea or coffee.
Traces are left in the decaffeinated product.
An average cup contains 0.1 parts per million which poses no significant health hazard. b.
Compounds formed during chlorine treatment of wood pulp during paper manufacture.
Found in coffee filters, milk cartons, paper plates and frozen food packages.
Contamination occurs only in trace quantities (in parts per trillion range) and these levels
appear to pose no health risk to humans.
c. Chemicals leached from plastic containers when used inappropriately
• E.g. using a margarine tub to store leftover food, and then heating in the microwave. When
heated, particles from the tub can migrate into the food. Make sure that you check your
containers to ensure that they are microwave safe before using them in the microwave.
d. Bisphenol A (BPA)
• See earlier discussion regarding BPA in “Non-Bacterial Food Contamination” Oc78
Define food allergy, discuss the incidence of food allergies in Canada, symptoms seen, and
how a food allergy occurs;
Identify the nine most common causes of food allergies in Canada;
Discuss the identification of food allergies and the treatment.
A food allergy involves an immune response to a food substance (specifically the proteins in
that food) called antigens.<
In Canada, food allergies affect about 5-6% of children and about 3-4% of adults. When a person
has a food allergy, their immune system mistakes the protein in a food for being harmful, and so
the body makes antibodies called immunoglobulin E (IgE) the first time it is exposed to the
protein. Then, when the body is re-exposed to that food protein, the IgE is released, along with
histamine, which can cause reactions in the skin (e.g., hives, itching), respiratory system (e.g.,
runny nose, difficulty breathing), gastrointestinal tract (vomiting, diarrhea), cardio