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HNSC 1200 (46)
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Chapter 5

HNSC 1200 Chapter 5: Topic 5.8

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Human Nutritional Sciences
HNSC 1200
Snehil Dua

oS82 • Saturated: Butyric acid – found in butter has 4 carbon atoms, single bonds and is saturated 
 Stearic acid – found in beef has 18 carbon atoms, single bonds and is saturated 
 Palmitic acid – found in palm oil and coca butter has 16 atoms, single bonds and is saturated 
 Monounsaturated Oleic acid found in olive oil and canola oil has 18 carbon atoms, one double bond and is unsaturated (monounsaturated) 
 Polyunsaturated Linoleic acid has 18 carbons and 2 double bonds. It is found in most foods especially oilseeds such as canola and soybean
 Linolenic acid also has 18 carbon atoms but contains 3 double bonds and is found mostly in soybean and hempseed
 Linoleic and linolenic acids are essential fatty acids which we will look at in greater detail
 Effects of processing on unsaturated fats Unsaturated fatty acids can be found in both cis and trans form, dependent on their structure at the double bond.
 In the cis form, the hydrogen atoms on the double bond are on the same side as the double bond
 In the trans form, the hydrogen atoms are on opposite sides of the double bond from one another
 Trans fatty acids have a higher melting point than the dis fatty acids
 Trans fatty acids can be found naturally in meat, poultry and processed milk products
 However, the majority of trans fatty acids in our diet are formed during the process of hydrogenation
 Hydrogenation Hydrogenation is a process where hydrogen is assed to unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., turning vegetable oil into hard margarine).
 The hydrogen attaches at the point(s) of unsaturation (the double bond), and the fatty acid becomes saturated (no longer has a double bond)
 This makes the fatty acid more solid t room temperature and increase the shelf life
 Points of unsaturation are more vulnerable to oxidation which is when oxygen mixes with the fat, oS82 causing it to go rancid, taste “off”
 That is why we store cooking oil in tightly sealed containers
 Therefore, the hydrogenated fats are more resistant to oxidation (no points of u
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