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HNSC 1200 (46)
Snehil Dua (46)
Chapter 5

HNSC 1200 Chapter 5: Topic 5.9

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Human Nutritional Sciences
HNSC 1200
Snehil Dua

oS98 Emulsifiers are substances that keep water and fat dispersed in one another (help them to mix together)
 Lecithin is a phospholipid found in egg yolk
 In mayonnaise, the lecithin blends the vinegar with the oil and keeps it from separating
 Sterols The third class of lipids is the sterols
 Sterols are large molecules consisting of interconnecting rings of carbon atoms, with side chains of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
 Cholesterol is an example of a sterol. Cholesterol is important in the structure of cell membranes, therefore is part of every cell and is necessary for optimal body functioning
 Cholesterol serves as the raw material for making bile, therefore it is important for fat digestion
 Cholesterol also forms the major part of the plaques that narrow the arteries in atherosclerosis, an underlying cause of heart attacks and strokes
 Cholesterol can be made by the body so therefore is not essential
 Plants do not manufacture cholesterol but they do manufacture other sterols called phytosterols
 Phytosterols are not well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and may actually interfere with absorption of cholesterol
 Therefore some types of foods such as margarine (e.g., Becel’s Pro. Active) are fortified with phytosterols to help reduce the amount of cholesterol absorbed into the blood stream
 Vitamin D is another example of a sterol that is made from cholesterol
 Some of our sex and stress hormones are steroid hormones, for which cholesterol is a precursor. 
 Fat Preservation and Deterioration Learning Objectives: • Describe the process of fat preservation and deterioration
 o|82 Define fat replacer and discuss options for fat replacement in foods
 Course Notes: Winterization of Fats A process to produce salad oils that do not crystallize (i.e., become cloudy) at refrigerator temperatures Oils can become cloudy at lower temperatures because some of the triglyceride molecules crystallize or become solid
 Involves lowering the temperature of oil to a point at which the triglycerides with high melting points crystallize (20C-0C). The oil is then filtered to remove the crystals and the remaining oil has a lower melting point and does not crystallize
 Rancidity • Chemical spoilage that commonly occurs with fats and fatty foods is called rancidity Cause off-flavors and rancid odors
 The longer a fat is stored, the greater the risk for rancidity
 Fats and oils exposed to heat, oxygen and light are more likely to become rancid (i.e., fats and oils are used for cooking
 Highly unsaturated fats/oils such as polyunsaturated fats are much more susceptible than saturated or monounsaturated fats
 Foods that easily go rancid are nuts, wheat germ and whole wheat flour
 Fats that have become rancid should be discarded, as they will transfer their off-flavors to the foods they are use
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