browning a piece of meat, roasting coffee beans)
In can be undesirable (e.g., browning and off-flavour development of skim milk powder stored over a long
period of time
May result in the formation of acrylamide, which may be a carcinogen. Foods that tend to have higher levels
of acrylamide include potato chips, French fries, crackers, bread and cereals.
• Discuss the types and processing of protein foods
Broadly defined, meat includes muscle tissue and organs of beef, veal, lamb, pork, poultry and fish
Red meat has negligible carbohydrate content as the glycogen is used up in the continuing metabolic
process after slaughter
Major components of meat are water, fat and protein, as well as some vitamins and minerals
Poultry tends to have a lower fat content and slightly higher protein content per weight than red meat
High water content and neutral pH makes meat susceptible to spoilage – this can be reduced by
curing (salt addition) or drying.
Other processing of meat includes grinding, canning and freezing.
There are 3 different types of proteins in muscle tissue:
The toughness of meat is directly related to the amount of collagen it contains.
That is why older animals, which have accumulated high levels of collagen, yield tougher meat than
◦ Meat usually has some visible fat within the muscle called marbling (see as white streaks or drops in Oc78
the muscle). Presence of fat increases juiciness and gives better eating quality. Due to heath concerns,
some animals are not bred to have leaner meat (less marbling, lower far content).
The colour of meat is often used to judge freshness and it is usually wrapped in material that is