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HNSC 1200 (46)
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Chapter 5

HNSC 1200 Chapter 5: Topic 5.10

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Human Nutritional Sciences
HNSC 1200
Snehil Dua

o982 Some are digested, so provide 4 kcal per gram, however others are not digested, so are virtually non- caloric
 They produce a mouthfeel that is similar to that associated with fat but they do not taste like fat and do not function like fat in cooking
 Can withstand heat, however cannot be used for frying (e.g., Oatrim – made from hydrolyzed oat flour, used in baked goods and salad dressings)
 • Protein-based replacers: Proteins are blended with gums to form gels, which have similar functions and structure as fat
 They provide 1.3 to 4 kcal per gram used
 Used to manufacture low-fat frozen and refrigerated products such as ice cream and other dairy products (e.g., can produce texture to cheese), but cannot be used for frying or at high temperatures (the protein coagulated at high temperatures and function is compromised)
 E.g., “simplesse” is a microparticulated protein, which is produced by reshaping milk and egg white protein into tiny round particles. The process produces protein so small that they are perceived as fluid by the mouth
 • Fat-based replacers: Fat molecule created with fewer carbon atoms in the structure (a shorter length of fatty acids). Therefore, fewer calories are provided
 Long chain fatty acids can be combined with sucrose to produce a compound known as sucrose polyester
 The idea of fat-replacers for weight loss is mixed. Many people assume that when they eat food that has less fat they can eat more of it, however labels reveal that many lower fat foods have similar calorie contents as their full fat counterparts. Some studies have shown that if portion sizes remain smaller, some weight loss can result. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids Learning Objectives: Differentiate between the structure of linoleic and linolenic acid and between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids
 o982 • Discuss the role of fats as functional foods and nutraceuticals
 Course Notes: See FIGURE 17
 Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are fatty acids that the body cannot make itself, that we must get from foods
 Linoleic acid (which is an example of an omega-6 fatty acid) and Linolenic acid (which is an example of an omega-3 fatty) are the only essential fatty acids 
 The EFAs can be used by the body to make eicosanoids, which are biologically active compounds that regulate body functions.
 Eicosanoids act somewhat like hormones.
 They can effect muscle relaxation and contraction, blood vessel dilatation and constriction, blood clot formation, blood lipid regulation and immune response to injury and infection.
 EFAs serve many functions in our body. Research is showing that EFAs enhance the cognitive abilities in infants
 Omega-6 (n-6) Fatty Acids Omega-6 fatty acids get their name because of a double carbon bond 6 carbons from the end of its chain 
 Linoleic acid is an example of an omega-6 fatty acid DRI recommendation: 5-10% energy from n-6 fatty acids
 Sources: vegetable oils, seeds, buts, whole grain products
 Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids Omega-3 fatty acids get their name because of a double carbon bond 3 carbons from the end of its chain 
 Linolenic acid is an example of an omega-3 fatty acid DRI recommendation: 0.6-1.2% energy from n-3 fatty acids
 Sources: flaxseed, flaxseed oil, canola oil, fish (especially deep sea fish)
 Research has shown that a higher intake of the omega-3 fatty acids can often improve the health of the heart.
 Our ratio of intake of omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acids is important, so we can improve this ratio by increasing our intake of omega-3 fatty acids and keeping our intake of omega-6 fatty acids at a moderate level
 OS98 There are three main types of omega-3 fatty acids: ◦ ALA (alphalinolenic acid) – from plant sources
 ◦ EPA (eicosanpentaenoic acid) – from fish sources
 ◦ DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) – from fish sources
 When given linolenic acid, the body can make other omega-3 fatty acids.
 Two specific omega-3 fatty acids are receiving great interest from research – EPA and DHA, however the body only makes limited amounts of these omega-3’s
 They are found abundantly in the oils of certain fish (deep sea, fatty fish, like salmon, char, mackerel, herring, cod, etc.).
 Results from many population studies and clinical trials have supported a recommendation to eat fish 
 The American Heart Association recently released recommendations to include two to three fish meals per week, and Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide encourages Canadians to have two meals with fish per week.
 Research on Omega-3 and Omega-6 Research first began on these fatty acids when researchers were trying to determine why people in Greenland and Alaska, with high fat diets, had such low rates of heart disease
 Research led to the high marine-based diet with an abundance of fish and an abundance of these heart healthy fatty acids
 The low inc
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