Textbook Notes (369,050)
Canada (162,363)
Psychology (222)
PSYC 1200 (40)
Chapter 11

PSYC 1200 Chapter 11: Chapter 11 - Developmental psychology

5 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 1200
Dawson Clary

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Chapter 11: Human Development Across the Lifespan Prenatal Development: Stages:  During the germinal stage a zygote becomes a mass of cells that implants in the uterine wall and the placenta begins to form   During the embryonic stage most vital organs and bodily systems begin to form, making it a period of great vulnerability   During the fetal stage organs continue to grow and gradually begin to function, as the fetus reaches the age of viability around 22-26 weeks Environmental Influences:  Maternal malnutrition increases newborns’ risk for birth complications and neurological deficits   Maternal consumption of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs can have a variety of negative effects on prenatal development   Maternal illnesses can interfere with prenatal development, and genital herpes and AIDS can be passed to newborns at birth Development in Childhood: Motor Development:  Motor development follows cephalocaudal (head-to-foot) and proximodistal (center-outward) trends   Early progress in motor skills has traditionally been attributed to maturation, but recent research suggests that infants’ exploration is also important   Cross-cultural research on motor development shows that maturation and environment are both influential Moral Development:  Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory proposes that individuals progress through three levels of moral reasoning   Pre-conventional reasoning focuses on the acts’ consequences, conventional reasoning on the need to maintain social order, and post-conventional reasoning on working out a personal code of ethics   Age-related progress in moral reasoning has been found in research, but there is a lot of overlap among stages Cognitive Development: oSDP  Jean Piaget proposed that children evolve through four stages of cognitive development   The major achievement of the sensorimotor period (birth-age 2) is the development of object permanence   Children’s thought during the preoperational period (ages 2-7) is marked by  centration, animism, irreversibility, and egocentrism  In the concrete operational period (ages 7-11) children develop the ability to perform operations on mental representations   In the formal operational period (age 11 onward) thought becomes more systematic, abstract, and logical   Piaget made landmark contributions to the understanding of cognitive development, but he may have underestimated the pace of children’s development and the influence of culture   Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural theory asserts that children’s cognitive development is shaped by social interactions, language development, and cultural factors   According to Vygotsky, children acquire their cultures cognitive skills through collaborative dialogues with more-experienced members of their society   Nativists and evolutionary theorists argue that children’s brains are prewired to readily understand certain concepts   Children’s understanding, or theory, of the mind seems to turn a corner  between ages 3 and 4 as they realize that people may hold false beliefs  Theory of mind refers to developments in children’s understanding of the mind, how it works, and their conceptions of another’s thought processes Approaches to Research on Development:  In a longitudinal study one group of subjects is observed repeatedly over time   In a cross-sectional group of subjects of varied ages are observed at a single point in time   Cross-sectional studies are quicker and easier, but longitudinal studies can be more sensitive Temperament:  Temperament refers to characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity   In a longitudinal study, Thomas and Chess found that temperament remains fairly stable as children grow up Attachment:  Attachment emerges out of a complex interplay between infants and their caregivers OcSD  Harry Harlow’s studies of infant monkeys showed that reinforcement is not the key to attachment   John Bowlby has shown that attachment has a biological and evolutionary basis   Research has shown that infant-mother attachments fall into four categories: secure, anxious-ambivalent, avoidant, and disorganized-disoriented   Infants with a relatively secure attachment tend to become resilient, competent toddlers with high self-esteem   Cultural variations in
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.