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Chapter 11

PSYC 1200 Chapter 11: Chapter 11 - Developmental psychology

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1200
Professor
Dawson Clary

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Chapter 11: Human Development Across the Lifespan Prenatal Development: Stages:  During the germinal stage a zygote becomes a mass of cells that implants in the uterine wall and the placenta begins to form   During the embryonic stage most vital organs and bodily systems begin to form, making it a period of great vulnerability   During the fetal stage organs continue to grow and gradually begin to function, as the fetus reaches the age of viability around 22-26 weeks Environmental Influences:  Maternal malnutrition increases newborns’ risk for birth complications and neurological deficits   Maternal consumption of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs can have a variety of negative effects on prenatal development   Maternal illnesses can interfere with prenatal development, and genital herpes and AIDS can be passed to newborns at birth Development in Childhood: Motor Development:  Motor development follows cephalocaudal (head-to-foot) and proximodistal (center-outward) trends   Early progress in motor skills has traditionally been attributed to maturation, but recent research suggests that infants’ exploration is also important   Cross-cultural research on motor development shows that maturation and environment are both influential Moral Development:  Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory proposes that individuals progress through three levels of moral reasoning   Pre-conventional reasoning focuses on the acts’ consequences, conventional reasoning on the need to maintain social order, and post-conventional reasoning on working out a personal code of ethics   Age-related progress in moral reasoning has been found in research, but there is a lot of overlap among stages Cognitive Development: oSDP  Jean Piaget proposed that children evolve through four stages of cognitive development   The major achievement of the sensorimotor period (birth-age 2) is the development of object permanence   Children’s thought during the preoperational period (ages 2-7) is marked by  centration, animism, irreversibility, and egocentrism  In the concrete operational period (ages 7-11) children develop the ability to perform operations on mental representations   In the formal operational period (age 11 onward) thought becomes more systematic, abstract, and logical   Piaget made landmark contributions to the understanding of cognitive development, but he may have underestimated the pace of children’s development and the influence of culture   Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural theory asserts that children’s cognitive development is shaped by social interactions, language development, and cultural factors   According to Vygotsky, children acquire their cultures cognitive skills through collaborative dialogues with more-experienced members of their society   Nativists and evolutionary theorists argue that children’s brains are prewired to readily understand certain concepts   Children’s understanding, or theory, of the mind seems to turn a corner  between ages 3 and 4 as they realize that people may hold false beliefs  Theory of mind refers to developments in children’s understanding of the mind, how it works, and their conceptions of another’s thought processes Approaches to Research on Development:  In a longitudinal study one group of subjects is observed repeatedly over time   In a cross-sectional group of subjects of varied ages are observed at a single point in time   Cross-sectional studies are quicker and easier, but longitudinal studies can be more sensitive Temperament:  Temperament refers to characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity   In a longitudinal study, Thomas and Chess found that temperament remains fairly stable as children grow up Attachment:  Attachment emerges out of a complex interplay between infants and their caregivers OcSD  Harry Harlow’s studies of infant monkeys showed that reinforcement is not the key to attachment   John Bowlby has shown that attachment has a biological and evolutionary basis   Research has shown that infant-mother attachments fall into four categories: secure, anxious-ambivalent, avoidant, and disorganized-disoriented   Infants with a relatively secure attachment tend to become resilient, competent toddlers with high self-esteem   Cultural variations in
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