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Chapter 6

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University of Manitoba
PSYC 1200
Jason Leboe- Mcgowan

 Conditioning: involves learning associations between events that occur in an organisms environment  Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning: a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus Terminology and Procedures  Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning  Unconditioned response (USR): an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning  Conditioned stimulus (CS): a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, aquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response  Conditioned response (CR): a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning  Pavlov's psychic reflex came to be called the conditioned reflex Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life  Stimuli that are consistently paired with the administration of drugs can acquire the capacity to elicit conditioned responses in both humans and lab animals o The conditioned responses often are just the opposite of the normal effects of the drugs o These opponent responses which have been seen as the result of conditioning with narcotics, stimulants, and alcohol are called compensatory CRs because they partially compensate for some drug effects  If drugs are taken in new ways or in new settings, these responses may not occur  Risk of overdose is increased Basic Processes in Classical Conditioning  Pavlov theorized that the acquisition of a CR depends on stimulus contiguity  Stimulus generalization: occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus  The more similar new stimuli are to the original CS, the greater the generalization  Stimulus discrimination: occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus  The less similar new stimuli are to the original CS, the greater the likelihood and ease of discrimination  Higher-order conditioning: a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus Operant Conditioning  A form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences Thorndike's Law of Effect  Instrumental learning: another name for operant conditioning o Introduced by Edward Thorndike o Law of effect: if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened Skinner's Demonstration: It's all a Matter of Consequences  Skinner demonstrated that organisms tend to repeat those responses that are followed by favorable consequences  Reinforcement occurs when an event following a response increases and organism's tendency to make that response Terminology and Procedures  An operant chamber, or Skinner box, is a small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled  Reinforcement contingencies: the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers  Cumulative recorder: creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a Skinner box as a function of time  The results of operant-conditioning studies are usually portrayed in graphs o A rapid response rate produces a steep slope, whereas a slow response rate produces a shallow slope Basic Processes in Operant Conditioning  Shaping: consists of the reinforcement of
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