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Chapter 5

PSYC 1200 - Chapter 5.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1200
Professor
Jason Leboe- Mcgowan
Semester
Fall

Description
 Consciousness is the awareness of internal and external stimuli  William James described continuous flow as stream of consciousness Variations in Awareness and Control  Koch and Tsuchiya have argued that you can have attention or consciousness - they don't have to go together  Blink - book by Malcolm Gladwell - refers to how quickly and effortlessly some of our judgements and choices are made Consciousness and Brain Activity  Electroencephalograph (EEG): device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp  When you are alertly engaged in problem solving, beta waves tend to dominate  When you are relaxed and resting, alpha waves increase  William Dement is credited with creating the first modern scientific laboratory dedicated to researching sleep  Biological ryhthms: periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning The Roles of Circadian Rhythms  Circadian rhythms: the 24 - hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species o In humans, they are regulated by multiple internal clocks  When exposed to light, some receptors in the retina send direct inputs to a small structure in the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) o The SCN sends signals to the pineal gland, which secrets melatonin - plays a key role in adjusting biological clocks The Sleep and Waking Cycles  Electromyograph (EMG): record muscular activity and tension  Electrooculograph: records eye movements  Five stages of sleep o Stage 1 - brief, transitional stage of light sleep that lasts 1 - 7 minutes  Breathing and heart rate slow, as muscle tension and body temperature decline o Stage 2 - typically lasts 10 - 25 minutes  Brief bursts of higher-frequency brain waves, called sleep spindles, appear against a background of mixed EEG activity o Slow wave sleep: consists of stages 3 and 4 during which high amplitude, low frequency delta waves become prominent in EEG recordings  Reached after half an hour, stay there for 30 minutes  Sleep moves back up through the stages - REM occurs when stage 1 should occur  REM sleep was discovered accidently in the 1950's in Nathanial Kleitman's lab o Marked by irregular breathing and pulse rate, extremely relaxed muscle tone  REM sleep: relatively deep stage of sleep marked by rapid eye movements, high- frequency, low-amplitude brain waves, and vivid dreaming  Non-REM (NREM) sleep consists of sleep stages 1 through 4, which are marked by an absence of rapid eye movements, relatively little dreaming, and varied EEG activity  Young adults typically spend 15 - 20% of their sleep time in slow-wave sleep and another 20 - 25% in REM sleep Age Trends in Sleep  Infants spend much more time in REM sleep than adults do Culture and Sleep  Differences relate to peripheral matters, such as co-sleeping and napping arrangements The Neural Bases of Sleep  Ascending reticular activating system (ARAS): consists of the afferent fibers running through the reticular formation that influence physiological arousal Doing Without: Sleep Deprivation  Research had mostly focused on partial sleep deprivation, or sleep restriction  REM deprivation has little impact on daytime functioning and task performance o Results in more freq
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