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Chapter 5

PSYC 1200 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: William C. Dement, Malcolm Gladwell, Hallucinogen


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1200
Professor
Jason Leboe- Mcgowan
Chapter
5

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Consciousness is the awareness of internal and external stimuli
William James described continuous flow as stream of consciousness
Variations in Awareness and Control
Koch and Tsuchiya have argued that you can have attention or consciousness - they don't
have to go together
Blink - book by Malcolm Gladwell - refers to how quickly and effortlessly some of our
judgements and choices are made
Consciousness and Brain Activity
Electroencephalograph (EEG): device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over
time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp
When you are alertly engaged in problem solving, beta waves tend to dominate
When you are relaxed and resting, alpha waves increase
William Dement is credited with creating the first modern scientific laboratory dedicated to
researching sleep
Biological ryhthms: periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning
The Roles of Circadian Rhythms
Circadian rhythms: the 24 - hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species
o In humans, they are regulated by multiple internal clocks
When exposed to light, some receptors in the retina send direct inputs to a small structure
in the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
o The SCN sends signals to the pineal gland, which secrets melatonin - plays a key role
in adjusting biological clocks
The Sleep and Waking Cycles
Electromyograph (EMG): record muscular activity and tension
Electrooculograph: records eye movements
Five stages of sleep
o Stage 1 - brief, transitional stage of light sleep that lasts 1 - 7 minutes
Breathing and heart rate slow, as muscle tension and body temperature decline
o Stage 2 - typically lasts 10 - 25 minutes
Brief bursts of higher-frequency brain waves, called sleep spindles, appear
against a background of mixed EEG activity
o Slow wave sleep: consists of stages 3 and 4 during which high amplitude, low
frequency delta waves become prominent in EEG recordings
Reached after half an hour, stay there for 30 minutes
Sleep moves back up through the stages - REM occurs when stage 1 should
occur
REM sleep was discovered accidently in the 1950's in Nathanial Kleitman's lab
o Marked by irregular breathing and pulse rate, extremely relaxed muscle tone
REM sleep: relatively deep stage of sleep marked by rapid eye movements, high-
frequency, low-amplitude brain waves, and vivid dreaming
Non-REM (NREM) sleep consists of sleep stages 1 through 4, which are marked by an
absence of rapid eye movements, relatively little dreaming, and varied EEG activity
Young adults typically spend 15 - 20% of their sleep time in slow-wave sleep and another
20 - 25% in REM sleep
Age Trends in Sleep
Infants spend much more time in REM sleep than adults do
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