PSYC 1200 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Quantitative Trait Locus, Monoamine Neurotransmitter, Genetic Linkage

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Communication in the Nervous System
Neurons are the basic communication link in the nervous system
o They transmit a neural impulse along an axon to a synapse with another neuron
o The neural impulse is a brief change in a neuron's electrical charge that moves along
an axon
An all-or-none event
Action potentials trigger the release of chemicals called neurotransmitters
o They diffuse across a synapse to communicate with other neurons
o Transmitters bind with receptors in the postsynaptic cell membrane, causing
excitatory or inhibitory PSP's
Most neurons are linked in neural pathways, circuits, and networks
Ach plays a key role in muscular movement
Disturbances in the activity of the monoamine transmitters have been related to the
development of depression and schizophrenia
GABA is a widely distributed inhibitory transmitter
Endorphins contribute to the relief of pain
Organization of the Nervous System
The nervous system can be divided into the
o Somatic nervous system
Connects to muscles and sensory receptors
o Autonomic nervous system
Connects to blood vessels, smooth muscle, and glands
Looking Inside the Brain: Research Methods
The EEG can record broad patterns of electrical activity in the brain
Lesioning involves destroying a piece of the brain
Electrical stimulation of the brain in certain areas activates them
CT scans, PET scans, MRI scans, and fMRI scans have been developed in recent years
The Brain and Behaviour
The brain has 3 major regions:
o The hindbrain
o The midbrain
o The forebrain
Structures in the hindbrain and midbrain handle essential functions
The thalamus is primarily a rely station
The hypothalamus is involved in the regulation of basic biological drives, such as hunger
and sex
The limbic system is involved in emotion, motivation, and memory
The cortex is the cerebrum's convoluted outer layer
o Subdivided into occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontal lobes
The brains organization is somewhat malleable
Right Brain/ Left Brain: Cerebral Laterality
The cerebrum is divided into right and left hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum
Each side of the brain has unique talents
The Endocrine System: Another Way to Communicate
The endocrine system consists of the glands that secrete hormones
o Hormones are chemicals involved in the regulation of basic bodily processes
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Document Summary

Action potentials trigger the release of chemicals called neurotransmitters: they diffuse across a synapse to communicate with other neurons, transmitters bind with receptors in the postsynaptic cell membrane, causing excitatory or inhibitory psp"s. Most neurons are linked in neural pathways, circuits, and networks. Ach plays a key role in muscular movement. Disturbances in the activity of the monoamine transmitters have been related to the development of depression and schizophrenia. Gaba is a widely distributed inhibitory transmitter. Endorphins contribute to the relief of pain. The nervous system can be divided into the: somatic nervous system. Connects to muscles and sensory receptors: autonomic nervous system. Connects to blood vessels, smooth muscle, and glands. The eeg can record broad patterns of electrical activity in the brain. Lesioning involves destroying a piece of the brain. Electrical stimulation of the brain in certain areas activates them. Ct scans, pet scans, mri scans, and fmri scans have been developed in recent years.

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