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Chapter 7

PSYC 2290 Chapter 7: Chap 7_Cognitive Processes and Academic Skills

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PSYC 2290
Jocelyn B.Proulx

Child development Chapter 7 Cognitive Processes and Academic Skills 7.1 Memory Origins of memory : - roots of memory are laid down in the frst few months of birth - According to Rovee-collier's exp (kicking moves a mobile) : 1. an event from the past is rememberd 2. Over time, the event can no longer be recalled 3. a cue can serve to dredge up a forgotten memory - toddlers can remember more than infants about their experiences - young children have better autobiographical memory ➢ Brain development and Memory : - brain structures responsible for the initial storage of info (hippocampus & amygdala) develop very early by 6 months - structures for retrieval (frontal cortex) develop much later by 2nd year - part of hippocampus isn't matured until 20 - 24 months a} As children grow, they use more effective strategies for remembering b} children's growing factual knowledge of the world allows them to organize info more completely and remember better. strategies for remembering : - an action to promote remembering - 7 - 8 years use rehearsal - as they age, they learn to use organization : structuring material to be remembered so that related info is placed together. - Elaboration : embellishing info to be remembered to make it more memorable - as they grow, they are more likelty to use external aids to memory (taking notes) - Chunking : process of organizing related items into one meaningful group. ➢ Metacognition : - Diagnosing memory problems accurately and monitoring the effectiveness of memory strategies are two imp elements of metamemory : a child's informal understanding of memory . - children learn that memory is sometiems fallible (sometimes forget) - Knowledge and understanding of cog processes is called metacognitive knowledge. - most imp feature of metacognitive knowledge is their understanding of the connections among goals, strategies, monitoring and outcomes - Effective cognitive self regualtion : skill at identifying goals, selecting effective strategies and monitoring accurately- is a characteristic of successful students Knowledge and Memory : - script : a memory strcture used to describe the sequecne in which events occur . - knowledge can sometiems distort memory - older children have greater knowledge than the younger ones, so they can have more memory distortions too - autobiographical memories create socially shared memories - Infantile amnesia - althpugh preschoolers are easily misled, they can provide reliable testimony Child development Chapter 7 7.2 Problem solving - reasoning & problem solving progresses as children develop - young children's though (preoperational stage) : limited :: adolescents thought (formal operational) : quite powerful - young children sometimes show remarkable problem solving skills and adolescents can be error prone Features of children's and adolescents problem solving : • young children sometimes fail to solve problems because they don't encode all the important info in a problem - Encoding process: transform the info in a problem into a mental representation - as they grow, their working memory capacity increases & because of greater knowledge of the world they will be able to solve the problems better. • Young children sometimes fail to solve problems because they don't plan ahead. - solving complex ones requires planning ahead - they believe that they can solve a prob without an explicit plan - planning is hard work and if they fail they may think that they wasted their effort - they may expect elders to solve complex problems for them • Successful problem solving typically depends upon knowledge specific to the problem as well as general processes. - solving a prob generally requires that children know some critical facts - they often use generic strategies - Means ends analysis : a person determines that diff btwn the current and desired situations, and then does something to reduce the diff • Children and Adolescents use a variety of strategies to solve problems. - Sieglers overlapping waves model :  children use multiple strategies to solve probs and overtime they tend to use strategies that are faster, more accrate, and takes less effort  children and adolescents are alike in choosing from a well stocked toolkit to solve probs, they differ in that adolescents have a better set of tools - Sometimes children and adolescents solve problems using heuristics : rule of thumb that do not guarantee a solution but are useful in solving a range of problems. - heuristics : fast & less effort - heuristic and analytic solutions are both used throughout childhood and adolescents, but use of analytic solution becomes more frequent as child develops. Scientific Problem solving : - When it comes to the skills associated with real scientific reasoning children and even Adolescents typically have some faults :  children and adolescents often device experiment in which variables are confounded - they are combined Instead of evaluated independently - so that the results are ambiguous  Children and adolescents often have difficulty integrating theory and data  Children and adolescents often reach conditions prematurely, Basing them on too little evidence - Children jump to conclusions without considering evidence carefully and tend to be confident in their decisions even when these are based on little evidence - Findings suggest that children and adolescents have limited scientific skills - Young children can be trained to think more scientifically - Overall, children's skill improves steadily as they grow but young children are sometimes amazingly skilled while older children and adolescents are sometimes surprisingly inept Child development Chapter 7 7.3 Academic Skills Reading : - Word recognition is the process of identifying a unique pattern of letters - Comprehension is the process of extracting meaning from a sequence of words Foundations of reading skill - Reading involves extracting meaning from print - Children who know more about letters and word forms also learn to read more easily than their peers who know less - The ability to hear the distinctive sounds of letters is a skill known as phonological awareness - English words consists of syllables and a syllable is made up of vowel that is usually but not always accompanied by consonants - Phonological awareness is strongly related to success in learning to read - Children who can readily distinguished language sounds learn to read more readily than children who do not - The more parents read Rhymes to their children the greater their children's phonological awareness , which makes learning to read much easier Recognizing words - The first step in true Reading is decoding : identifying individual words by sounding out the letters in them - The general strategy children use it to try retrieval first and if that fails, to sound out the word or ask a more skilled reader for help - Familiar words were retrieved rapidly, but the unfamiliar ones were slowly sounded out - With more experience, children sound out fewer words and retrieve more - Readers use sentence context to help them recognize words, particularly difficult ones Educational implications for teaching reading - teachers have used one of three methods to teach reading -The oldest method is teaching phonics  That is b sounds like B-u-h and E It sounds like eee  Learning all the letters and their Associated sounds can be tedious and can perhaps discourage children from their efforts to learn to read - in the whole word method, children are taught to recognize whole words on sight, usually beginning with a small number all very familia
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