Chapter 1 Notes.pdf

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16 Apr 2012
inference - a piece of reasoning. A kind of mental process. Happen in the privacy of our own minds.
argument - to engage in a public interpersonal reasoning process. A social exchange between two or more persons
asserts the premises (claims them to be true or acceptable, even if only hypothetically or for the sake of argument)
asserts that if the premises are true (or acceptable) than the conclusion is true (or acceptable)
asserts the conclusion
Argument Structure - the arguer:
Arguments have public aim, which is independent from the private purposes of the arguers, and t has public rules, which
are independent of the thought processes actually occurring in reasoners
the premises must be relevant to the conclusion; they need to make a rationally grounded connection to the
the premises must provide sufficient or strong rational grounds for asserting the conclusion
cogent argument - an argument that meets the following conditions:
logical argument (argument in the narrow sense) - a claim put forward together with the presentation of reasons in
support of the truth of that claim
validity - the goodness of a good deductive argument is called validity.
A valid deductive arguments such that in any situation in which the premises are true the conclusion must also be true.
An argument is invalid if and only if it is possible for the premises to be true and and the conclusion to be false
Validity and invalidity are not about the truth or falsity of the premises or conclusion
soundness - an argument is sound if and only if it is valid and the premises are true
counter-example - an example that makes the premises true and the conclusion false in an invalid deductive argument
(informal fallacies). It refutes an argument.
A valid argument cannot have a counter-example
syllogism - a very general argument pattern that involves two premises and a conclusion and three terms
Chapter 1 Text Notes
Ch.1 Text Notes Page 1
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