Chapter 2 Notes.pdf

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16 Apr 2012
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Classification - a kind of division according to a rule
- a group of individuals is divided into subgroups by a rule that sorts them by a set of common properties.
Should be exhaustive. Every member of the whole group being classified should be put in some subgroup or another
i.
Should be exclusive. No member of the group being classified should be put into more than one group; groups don't overlap
ii.
Should be clear. The rules of classification should be sufficiently easy to understand and imply that is clear to which group members belong
iii.
iv.
-4 rules for classification:
Definition - a statement that specifies what the term means
- used to tell us what is and what is not included in the reference of a term
-It is important in an argument are using the terms in the same way to mean the same thing
A good definition of a term shouldn’t be too broad
i.
The definition shouldn’t be too narrow
ii.
A good definition should avoid vagueness and obscurity
iii.
A good definition should not be circular
iv.
A good definition should not be negative
v.
A good definition is not slanted or biased
vi.
-6 rules for a good definition
Implicit statement - a statement that is assumed to be true in some context but is not explicitly stated.
Argument from definition - an argument in which the conclusion is presented as following simply by definition or meaning of the words used in the argume nt. EX: Bruce
is my father, so Bruce is a man
Necessary truth (logical truth) - a statement that is true under every interpretation . It is impossible to be false and its negation is a contradiction
Explicit statement - explicit information is made by adding a sentence that states the information clearly
Enthymemes - an argument in which a required premise is not stated explicitly but is assumed implicitly as part of the argument
-the trouble is that they assume that you will notice the implicit assumption
-EX: dogs are animals, so they are not machines. This assumes that everyone knows that dogs are animals
Epistemic consideration - A consideration that bears on the question of whether what is under discussion is known or reasonable to believe
I should believe what is true
1)
I should believe what I have reason to believe
2)
-Two fundamental rules for the question "What do I believe?" are:
Fallacy - a form of an argument that is invalid or violates a relevance condition
- a fallacious argument is one that is not cogent
Chapter 2 Text Notes
January-18-12
11:28 PM
Ch.2 Text Notes Page 1