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PHIL 140 (7)
Chapter 3

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PHIL 140
Eric Dayton

Chapter 3 Text NotesFebruary0512833 PMAmbiguitythe condition of having more than one meaning or interpretationFallacies of ambiguity are unsound because they contain words or phrases that can be understood in more than one wayTypesLexical ambiguity Equivocationa word or phrase has more than one lexical definition so it can be understood in more than one wayEXOnly man is rationalThe word man is used ambiguously No woman is a manTherefore no woman is rational Structural ambiguity amphibolya string of words in a sentence have more than one legitimate grammatical meaningEX 1 Killer says dead man was chasing him with a macheteEX 2 Save soap and waste paperEX 3 I heard about her at the barThe first two examples have a conflict between what the grammar requires and what background knowledge does but the third example has insufficient background knowledge to determine the meaningAnother type of structural ambiguity is ambiguity of crossreferencewhich occurs when a phrase refers back to something previously mentioned but the something being referred to is not clearEX Bill was mad at Joe so he started cryingFallacy of accentarises when it is unclear where the stress should fall in a statement or what tone of voice is intendedEX1 Did yousteal the butter assumes someone stole the butter2 Did you stealthe butter assumes you acquired it somehow3 Did you steal the butter assumes you stole somethingThe fallacy of accent reveals that language comprehension is deeply dependent on background informationFallacy of compositioncan be when one reasons fallaciously that the properties of the parts of the whole are the properties of the whole itself EX if every part of a machine is light it does not follow that the machine itself is light These patterns are not always fallacious If a property F is compositionally hereditary with regard to a whole if and onlyifwhen every part of the whole has property F then the whole does as well EX If all the parts of a machine are made of iron the whole machine is made of iron as well Being heavy is a relative property whereas the property of being iron is an absolute propertyCan also be when one reasons incorrectly from the properties possessed by the individual members of a class or collection to the properties possessed by the class or collection itselfThe members of a class can as a class have properties distributivelyso that each member of the class has that pr
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