# Chapter 4 Notes.pdf

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16 Apr 2012
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- in a non-monotonic argument, additional information an change the reasonableness of the conclusion
Monotonic argument - an inference or argument where the addition of information cannot overturn an established conclusions
Defeasible argument - one whose conclusion can be defeated by additional information; non-monotonic arguments are defeasible
-A cogent argument cannot be overturned by the addition of new information
EX: Bill ate a burger… he must have been hungry
EX: Martha got into her car… she wanted to drive somewhere
Motivational inference - an inference to the reasonable motivation for an action you know about
-EX: Andy's diapers are wet… Andy is a baby
Feature inference - an inference grounded in the knowledge that someone or something has a property that is typical of individuals of certain kind but is
otherwise rare
- EX: Bill ties his shoes… his shoes are tied
Resultative inference - an inference to a result or consequence of a typical kind of action or event
- EX: Bill opened the fridge… he wanted some food
Functional inference - in inference grounded in the fact that many objects and events have typical purposes or do recognizable jobs
Types of ordinary material inferences (they are all inductive):
- a generalization is confirmed by its positive instances
- as N gets larger, the truth of the conclusion becomes more likely and thus more reasonable to believe
- Only a single contradictory case is needed to falsify the argument
Enumerative induction - argues from a set of premises about members of a group to a generalization about the entire group.
Fallacy of false analogy - comparison of two things that are only superficially similar, or even if they are very similar are not similar in the relevant respect
Pointed to two similarities: Once you flush a toilet by pulling the handle, all of the rest follows in a rush and then it takes a while for the toilet to fill
up again, therefore by flushing it again quickly, it is much weaker
It is a hydraulic model because it compares instinctual motivation to the liquid in a water closet, whose accumulation and discharge influence
behavior
The time it takes the tank to refill corresponds to the time between occasions of instinctually driven behaviours
The longer the time since the behaviour was performed the stronger the response will be
The Water Closet Model of Instinct
a.
In the 1st century BC, King Heiro commissioned some goldsmiths to make a golden crown in the form of the wreath, and gave them the weight in
gold
When he received the finished crown, he suspected that they might have replaced the gold with some weight of silver.
He asked his friend, mathematician Archimedes, to determine if the crown was fully gold or not. Since it was dedicated to thegods, he was not
allowed to melt it down
When he went to the baths, he noticed that his body displaced a certain amount of water
He got the idea to take a weight of gold equal to that of the crown and determine how much water was displaced by each
The crown was like Archimedes' body, not in size or weight, but in its capacity to displace a volume of water equal to its volume, and in this respect
the two are exactly alike and so behave in exactly the same way
Archimedes and Heiro's Golden Crown
b.
Toricelli conjectured that air, like water, has weight and that we live "immersed at the bottom of a sea of elemental air". Galileo believed air was
weightless
The miners of that time (17th century) developed suction pumps to pump water out of mines, but they found that they only worked to abut 9m
Galileo thought that it was because of the cohesive strength of water, but Toricelli proved that it was due to atmospheric pressure which pushed
the water up the pipe when air was sucked out of it
By doing experiments with mercury in tubes, Toricelli found that the height was proportional by weight to the 9 meter column of water at its limits
in a suction pump.
The vacuum does not pull mercury up the tube; instead the weight of air pushing down on the dish of mercury prevents the mercury column in the
tube from falling out of the tube
French mathematician Pascal designed an experiment, taking a tube of mercury to the top of a mountain to determine if the height of the column
would drop as the went shallower in the "sea of air". This was indeed what happened
Toricelli and the Sea of Air
c.
Famous analogies that pointed to ways of different kinds of explanation:
-EX: if four people eat and all four get sick, then the method of agreement would say that the cause is the only food that all
four ate
The method of agreement - if two or more instances of the phenomenon under investigation have only one circumstance in common, the circumstance
in which alone all the instances agree, is the cause (or effect) of the given phenomenon
i.
- EX: If everyone but Steve gets food poisoning and they all ate the same things, except Steve didn’t eat ice cream, ice cream is the
likely cause
Method of difference - if an instance in which the phenomenon under investigation occurs, and an instance in which it does not occur, have every
circumstance in common save one, that one occurring only in the former; the circumstance in which alone the two instances differ is the effect, or the
cause, of the phenomenon
ii.
-EX: If three out of four people get sick, and they all ate different things except the three sick ones ate ice
cream and the non-sick one didn't, ice cream is the likely cause
Joint method of agreement and difference - if two or more instances in which the phenomenon occurs have only one circumstance in common, while
two or more instances in which it does not occur have nothing in common save the absence of that circumstance: the circumstance in which alone the
two sets of instances differ, is the effect, or cause, or a necessary part of the cause, of the phenomenon
iii.
Method of residue - deduct from any phenomenon such part is known by previous inductions to be the effect of certain antecedents, and the residueof
iv.
Mill's Methods:
Chapter 4 Text Notes
February-06-12
12:53 PM
Ch.4 Text Notes Page 1
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