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PHIL 140 (7)
Chapter 4

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PHIL 140
Eric Dayton

Chapter 4 Text NotesFebruary06121253 PMMonotonic argumentan inference or argument where the addition of information cannot overturn an established conclusions in a nonmonotonic argument additional information an change the reasonableness of the conclusionDefeasible argumentone whose conclusion can be defeated by additional information nonmonotonic arguments are defeasibleA cogent argument cannot be overturned by the addition of new informationTypes of ordinary material inferences they are all inductiveMotivational inferencean inference to the reasonable motivation for an action you know aboutEX Bill ate a burger he must have been hungryEX Martha got into her car she wanted to drive somewhereFeature inferencean inference grounded in the knowledge that someone or something has a property that is typical of individuals of certain kind but is otherwise rareEX Andys diapers are wet Andy is a babyResultative inferencean inference to a result or consequence of a typical kind of action or event EX Fred hit his head his head hurts EX Bill ties his shoes his shoes are tiedFunctional inferencein inference grounded in the fact that many objects and events have typical purposes or do recognizable jobs EX Bill opened the fridge he wanted some food Enumerative inductionargues from a set of premises about members of a group to a generalization about the entire group a generalization is confirmed by its positive instances as N gets larger the truth of the conclusion becomes more likely and thus more reasonable to believe Only a single contradictory case is needed to falsify the argumentFallacy of false analogycomparison of two things that are only superficially similar or even if they are very similar are not similar in the relevant respectFamous analogies that pointed to ways of different kinds of explanationThe Water Closet Model of InstinctaPointed to two similarities Once you flush a toilet by pulling the handle all of the rest follows in a rush and then it takes a while for the toilet to fill up again therefore by flushing it again quickly it is much weakerIt is a hydraulic model because it compares instinctual motivation to the liquid in a water closet whose accumulation and discharge influence behaviorThe time it takes the tank to refill corresponds to the time between occasions of instinctually driven behavioursThe longer the time since the behaviour was performed the stronger the response will beArchimedes and Heiros Golden CrownbIn the 1st century BC King Heiro commissioned some goldsmiths to make a golden crown in the form of the wreath and gave them the weight in goldWhen he received the finished crown he suspected that they might have replaced the gold with some weight of silverHe asked his friend mathematician Archimedes to determine if the crown was fully gold or not Since it was dedicated to thegods he was not allowed to melt it downWhen he went to the baths he noticed that his body displ
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