Chapter 5 Notes.pdf

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16 Apr 2012
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Bias - an insensitivity to evidence
Also known as ad hominem, which is latin for "against the man"
Indicates that the attack is directed towards the speaker rather than towards their argument
Simple abuse - here, we simply insult our opponent
-EX: Those who disagree with me when I say that humanity is corrupt prove that they have already been corrupted.
Poisoning the well - occurs when we criticise a person's motivation for offering a particular argument or claim, rather than examining the worth of the argument or claim itself
-The opponent fails to follow their own advice
-This has nothing to do with the quality or validity of the argument.
Tu quoque - "look who's talking". A person is charged with acting in a manner that is incompatible with the position he or she is arguing for
Personal Attack
An appeal to our emotions using theatrical language. Using flattery to get people on your side
EX: Since you are a college audience, I know I can speak to you about difficult matter
EX: I'm a working man myself, and I kno how hard it is to make ends meet.
Mob Appeal
Exploits a single emotion, sympathy
to single out the pity of one person
Occurs when we attempt to evoke feelings of pity or compassion in order to cause you to assert to our claim
Appeal to pity is fallacious because it fails by its structure to distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate contexts for having feelings of sympathy
The Appeal to Pity
The use of threats or force to cause acceptance of a conclusion
EX: If you do not convict this murderer, you may be his next victim
EX: Don’t argue with me, remember who pays your salary.
Appeal to Force or Fear
Occurs when we apply a double standard, one for ourselves and one for everyone else
language has a character in which situations have a positive and negative viewpoint
EX: the ruthless tactics of the enemy, his fanatical suicide attacks, have been foiled by the stern measures of our commanders and the devoted self-sacrifice of our troops
EX: Teaching is no longer a woman's job. It is now seen as a tough, exciting place where things are happening
Special Pleading
Chapter 5 Text Notes
February-07-12
1:08 AM
Ch.5 Text Notes Page 1
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