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PHIL 140 (7)
Chapter 6

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PHIL 140
Eric Dayton

Chapter 6 Text NotesFebruary2812Categorical logicthe logic of terms developed by AristotleCategorical statementmakes a claim about the relationship between some or all of the members of two classes of things Four standard typesNameTypeStandard FormExampleAUniversal AffirmativeAll S are PAll Canadians are farmersEUniversal NegativeNo S are PNo Canadians are farmersIParticular AffirmativeSome S are PSome Canadians are farmersOParticular NegativeSome S are not PSome Canadians are not farmersEvery categorical statement in standard form has four partsQuantifierthe beginning words Some All or No1Subject terma word or phrase denoting a class of things serving as the subject of the sentence2Copulathe linking verb are which is a form of the verb to be that connects the subject term with predicate term3Predicate terma word or phrase denoting a class of things serving as the subject complement which is a noun phrase linked to the subject by the 4copula together with which it forms the verb phrase of the sentenceQuantifierSubject TermCopulaPredicate TermAAllducks arebirds universal affirmativeENohumansaregods universal negativeISomehumans areengineers particular affirmativeOSomereptilesare notsnakes particular negativeThe qualityof a categorical statement is the character affirmative or negative of the relationship it affirms between its subject and its predicate termsIt is an affirmativestatement if it states that the class designated by its subject term is included either as a whole or only in part within the class designated by its predicate termIt is a negativestatement if it wholly or partially excludes members of the subject class from the predicate classThe quantityof a categorical statement on the other hand is ameasure of the degree universal or particular to which the relationship between its subject and predicate terms holdsIt is a universal statement if the asserted claim holds true for every member of the class designated by its subject termIt is a particularstatement if the claim is asserted to hold only for one or more members of the subject classUniverse of discourseall of the things in the world being discussed Represented by the square surrounding the circles in a Venn diagramThe pair of circles separates the universe of discourse into four areasLenscontains everything that is both S and PiLeft Lunecontains only things that are S but not PiiRight Lunecontains only things that are P but not SiiiEverything that is neither S nor PivAll S are Pif all S are P then if there is any thing that is an S then it is also a P there are not any things that that are S but not PEX All dogs are mammalsSPNo S Are Pif no S are Pthen there are no things in the universe of discourse that are both S and P EX No snakes are poodlesSP Ch 6 Text Notes Page 1
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