Chapter 5: Testing in Clinical Psychology
Chapter 5: Testing in Clinical Psychology
1. What is a Test?
•It is a standardized procedure for sampling behavior and describing it in
categories or scores
•A systematic procedure for gathering and interpreting data according to
•Interpreted considering extraneous variables
Paradigm (sign or example).
2.What do tests measure?
•Various clinical constructs
broad and specific
A construct is something we have named and defined.
Primary Types of Psychological Tests
•Mental ability tests
–Intelligence tests – general.
-Aptitude tests – specific.
–variety of traits, attitudes and motives
-specific values, attitudes and interests.
3. How are tests constructed?
•Empirical criterion method
discriminatory items e.g MMPI-2
•Theoretical criterion method
theoretical constructs e.g. MCMI-III
factors constructed e.g. NEO-PI 4. Standardization & Score Interpretation
Uniform procedures used to administer and score a test.
Use of validity scales?
Norms used for interpretation of score on a test in relation to other scores on that
–scores are normed according to a certain group (normal curve): central tendency.
–Exception: Ipsative Scores
-Attention- timed and untimed tests, N-V behaviors, setting etc nb for interpretation
5. Tests of Intellectual Functioning
•Theories of intelligence generally agree that intelligence facilitates adaption and
•Different theories have different emphasis
3 general approaches:
-multiple specific intelligence factors
6. Evolution of Intelligence Tests
•Sir Francis Galton (1869) – Darwin’s cousin?
At this time, Mendel is playing around with DNA… what is hereditary?
–Hereditary Genius-positive eugenics
•Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon (1905)
Stanford brought this test to “Amedica.”
–Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale
•Lewis Terman (1916)
–Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
–Intelligence Quotient (IQ) = MA/CA x 100
•David Wechsler (1955)
–Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
7. The Binet Scales 7. The Binet Scales
• Individually administered and scored.
• Consisted of items testing reasoning, memory, and general knowledge that a
French school child of average intelligence would have acquired by given age.
Tested different ages… the higher your age the lower your score, it meant you
were mentally retarded, apparently.
•Test items graded in difficulty.
Computing I.Q. by the Ratio Method
I.Q. = (M Age/Chronological Age) X 100.
Example: (12 years/ 10 years) X 100 = 120.
•Advantage: Easy to Compute
•Disadvantage: I.Q. not comparable across age groups.
•High reliability and validity
9. Further Development
• The deviation method has replaced the ratio method.
• Permits comparison of I.Q. across age groups.
•Administer test to a standardization sample.
•Compute mean and standard deviation the of the raw scores raw scores
•Use mean and standard deviation to convert to convert raw scores to standard
having a mean of 100 and a known standard deviation.
10. Wechsler Intelligence Tests
•Developed by David Wechsler (1955)
• An overall I.Q comprised of VIQ and PIQ
•Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Wechsler In Intelligence Scale (WISC)
•Standardized to mean = 100, SD = 15
•Most widely used—reliable, easy administration and scoring.
11. WAIS-III Hierarchy/Tiers
VCI WMI POI PSI VCI WMI POI PSI
V S I C A DS LN PC BD MR PA Cd SS
12. Problems with Intelligence Measures
• measures achievement more than creativity/adaptability/interpersonal skills/ego
–Correlated highly with academic achievement.
-factors involved in correlation
•Tend to be culturally biased e.g
•Do not measure intelligence accurately
13. Final Note
•Diagnosis of Retardation is based on IQ and adaptive testing.
–IQ below 70 (65-0) sig. below average in general intellectual functioning.
–Significant limitations in adaptive functioning in at least two areas
–Evident before the age of 18.
•4 levels: mid (317); moderate (318.0); severe (318.1), profound (318.2 or higher).
•Causes: –nature vs. nurture
15. Ethical Standards
Pple 1: respect for the dignity of the individual – sensitive feedback.
Pple 2: responsible caring competence (max benefit, minimal harm).
Pple 3: integrity in relationships… honesty/no deception
Pple 4: responsibility to society… balance freedom and responsibility to society.
16. Tests of Psychopathology and Personality
Objective Tests for Psychopathology (self reports… look for specific profiles)
Objective Tests for Personality (aren’t so keen on looking for disorders)
- Different from projective
- Objective tests can go into any paradigm
- Developed on the assumption that they are stuck in your “unconscious” that - Developed on the assumption that they are stuck in your “unconscious” that
should be accessed/assessed.
Projective Tests- Drawings and Stories
Personality: characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving.
Study of personality focuses on two broad areas:
-understanding individual differences in particular characteristics.
-understanding how various traits come together as a whole.
Psychopathology: a functional impairment – sometimes causing distress and
decreased social effectivenes OR behavioural disability.
Personality tests vs psychopathology measures
18. MMPI-2 (Psychopathology)
Developed as a diagnostic tool.
-originally identified eight patterns of pathology.
-added 2 scales & 4 validity scales to original 3 (LFK)…later content scales
-New normative data re degree and nature of emotional disturbance
19. MMPI-2 continued
6 grade reading level— 90-120 minutes
Profile codes 2 highest peaks of 10 scales
Uses modifying indices and supplementary scales
Problem: Frequently high
MMPI-2 Validity scales
L- Lie: unsophisticated
F- infrequency (17-51; T=88-113- borderline- unusual) Fb- F back-tire of role
K – correction – more sophisticated/ego
VRIN – Variable – R inconsistency
TRIN – True R - inconsistency
21. MMPI-2 Clinical Scales
1 -Hs Hypochondriasis Concern with bodily symptoms
—fear of death, illness, attack.
2-D Depression Depressive Symptoms
-fear of losses
3 -Hy Hysteria Awareness of problems and vulnerabilities –mental & physical
-fear of emotional pain
4 -Pd Psychopathic Deviate Various negative social responses – Conflict, struggle,
anger, respect for society’s rules – emotional numbing.
-fear of rejection
5 -MF Masculinity/Femininity – Stereotypical masculine of feminine
6 -Pa Paranoia Level of trust, suspiciousness and sensitivity.
-fear of humiliation, criticism.
7 -Pt Psychasthenia Level of worry, anxiety, tension, doubts, obsessiveness.
-fear of the unexpected
8 -Sc Schizophrenia Odd thinking social alienation
-fear of hostility (extreme) shut down