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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Testing in Clinical Psychology.pdf

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University of Saskatchewan
PSY 257
Donna Darbellay

Chapter 5: Testing in Clinical Psychology September-27-12 10:14 AM Chapter 5: Testing in Clinical Psychology 1. What is a Test? •It is a standardized procedure for sampling behavior and describing it in categories or scores •A tool •A systematic procedure for gathering and interpreting data according to standardized norms—nomothetic •Controlled administration •Interpreted considering extraneous variables Paradigm (sign or example). 2.What do tests measure? •Various clinical constructs broad and specific A construct is something we have named and defined. Primary Types of Psychological Tests •Mental ability tests –Intelligence tests – general. -Aptitude tests – specific. •Personality tests/scales –variety of traits, attitudes and motives -specific values, attitudes and interests. 3. How are tests constructed? •Empirical criterion method discriminatory items e.g MMPI-2 •Theoretical criterion method theoretical constructs e.g. MCMI-III •Analytical factors constructed e.g. NEO-PI 4. Standardization & Score Interpretation Standardization: involves Uniform procedures used to administer and score a test. Use of validity scales? Norms used for interpretation of score on a test in relation to other scores on that test. –scores are normed according to a certain group (normal curve): central tendency. –Exception: Ipsative Scores -Attention- timed and untimed tests, N-V behaviors, setting etc nb for interpretation 5. Tests of Intellectual Functioning •Theories of intelligence generally agree that intelligence facilitates adaption and includes abstraction. •Different theories have different emphasis 3 general approaches: -general factor -multiple specific intelligence factors -hierarchical factors 6. Evolution of Intelligence Tests •Sir Francis Galton (1869) – Darwin’s cousin? At this time, Mendel is playing around with DNA… what is hereditary? –Hereditary Genius-positive eugenics •Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon (1905) Stanford brought this test to “Amedica.” –Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale –Mental age •Lewis Terman (1916) –Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale –Intelligence Quotient (IQ) = MA/CA x 100 •David Wechsler (1955) –Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 7. The Binet Scales 7. The Binet Scales • Individually administered and scored. • Consisted of items testing reasoning, memory, and general knowledge that a French school child of average intelligence would have acquired by given age. Tested different ages… the higher your age the lower your score, it meant you were mentally retarded, apparently. •Test items graded in difficulty. 8. Stanford-Binet Computing I.Q. by the Ratio Method I.Q. = (M Age/Chronological Age) X 100. Example: (12 years/ 10 years) X 100 = 120. •Advantage: Easy to Compute •Disadvantage: I.Q. not comparable across age groups. •Hierarchical •High reliability and validity 9. Further Development • The deviation method has replaced the ratio method. • Permits comparison of I.Q. across age groups. •Administer test to a standardization sample. •Compute mean and standard deviation the of the raw scores raw scores •Use mean and standard deviation to convert to convert raw scores to standard having a mean of 100 and a known standard deviation. 10. Wechsler Intelligence Tests •Developed by David Wechsler (1955) • An overall I.Q comprised of VIQ and PIQ •Hierarchical •Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Wechsler In Intelligence Scale (WISC) •Standardized to mean = 100, SD = 15 •Most widely used—reliable, easy administration and scoring. 11. WAIS-III Hierarchy/Tiers FS-IQ V-IQ P-IQ VCI WMI POI PSI VCI WMI POI PSI V S I C A DS LN PC BD MR PA Cd SS 12. Problems with Intelligence Measures • measures achievement more than creativity/adaptability/interpersonal skills/ego strength etc. –Correlated highly with academic achievement. .40–.50 .60–.80 -factors involved in correlation •Tend to be culturally biased e.g •Do not measure intelligence accurately *** 13. Final Note •Diagnosis of Retardation is based on IQ and adaptive testing. * –IQ below 70 (65-0) sig. below average in general intellectual functioning. –Significant limitations in adaptive functioning in at least two areas –Evident before the age of 18. •4 levels: mid (317); moderate (318.0); severe (318.1), profound (318.2 or higher). •Causes: –nature vs. nurture 15. Ethical Standards Pple 1: respect for the dignity of the individual – sensitive feedback. Pple 2: responsible caring competence (max benefit, minimal harm). Pple 3: integrity in relationships… honesty/no deception Pple 4: responsibility to society… balance freedom and responsibility to society. 16. Tests of Psychopathology and Personality Objective Tests for Psychopathology (self reports… look for specific profiles) MMPI-2 MCMI-III Objective Tests for Personality (aren’t so keen on looking for disorders) - Different from projective - Objective tests can go into any paradigm - Developed on the assumption that they are stuck in your “unconscious” that - Developed on the assumption that they are stuck in your “unconscious” that should be accessed/assessed. PAI MBTI NEO-PI Projective Tests- Drawings and Stories 17. Definitions Personality: characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. Study of personality focuses on two broad areas: -understanding individual differences in particular characteristics. -understanding how various traits come together as a whole. Psychopathology: a functional impairment – sometimes causing distress and decreased social effectivenes OR behavioural disability. Personality tests vs psychopathology measures 18. MMPI-2 (Psychopathology) Developed as a diagnostic tool. -originally identified eight patterns of pathology. Revised version -added 2 scales & 4 validity scales to original 3 (LFK)…later content scales -New normative data re degree and nature of emotional disturbance 19. MMPI-2 continued th 6 grade reading level— 90-120 minutes Profile codes 2 highest peaks of 10 scales Uses modifying indices and supplementary scales Assesses Useful Computer friendly * 20. MMPI-A Problem: Frequently high MMPI-2 Validity scales L- Lie: unsophisticated F- infrequency (17-51; T=88-113- borderline- unusual) Fb- F back-tire of role Fp- pathology K – correction – more sophisticated/ego VRIN – Variable – R inconsistency TRIN – True R - inconsistency Different patterns 21. MMPI-2 Clinical Scales 1 -Hs Hypochondriasis Concern with bodily symptoms —fear of death, illness, attack. 2-D Depression Depressive Symptoms -fear of losses 3 -Hy Hysteria Awareness of problems and vulnerabilities –mental & physical -fear of emotional pain 4 -Pd Psychopathic Deviate Various negative social responses – Conflict, struggle, anger, respect for society’s rules – emotional numbing. -fear of rejection 5 -MF Masculinity/Femininity – Stereotypical masculine of feminine interests/behaviours. 6 -Pa Paranoia Level of trust, suspiciousness and sensitivity. -fear of humiliation, criticism. 7 -Pt Psychasthenia Level of worry, anxiety, tension, doubts, obsessiveness. -fear of the unexpected 8 -Sc Schizophrenia Odd thinking social alienation -fear of hostility (extreme)  shut down
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