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Canada (161,650)
AFM 341 (30)
Brian Ma (12)
Chapter 12

AFM 341 Chapter 12: Chapter 12

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Department
Accounting & Financial Management
Course
AFM 341
Professor
Brian Ma
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 12 Operating System (OS) - most important system software since it allows a computer to operate lol - Purpose o ensures integrity of system (translate high level languages to machine level languages? o control flow on multiprogramming and tasks of scheduling in computer o allocate computer resources to users and applications (provided controlled access to data?-->NOPE!) o manage interfaces of computer (What does that mean…?) - should be included as IT governance in coming up with policies and procedures (who can assess OS, resources – programs/files they can use, what they can do) Five fundamental control objectives of operating systems: 1. protect itself from users (user applications can’t gain control/damage OS) 2. protect users from each other (can’t access, destroy, corrupt data/programs of another user) 3. protect users from themselves (applications may have modules ?????- modules can’t destroy/corrupt another module) 4. protected from itself (OS is made up of modules – same as above) 5. protect from environment (power failure, etc. must be able to terminate activities to be recovered later) Database Systems - database: shared collection of related data that meets information needs of company - accountants need to understand database systems because they participate in designing internal control systems and improving business and IT processes - data warehouse: centralized collection of firm data stored for 5 to 10 years, useful for finding patterns and identifying trends - Operational databases: used for daily operations (only has data for the current year, updated when transactions happen) - data mining: process of searching for patterns in the data warehouse to make decisions (ex. predict customer buying behaviour) - data governance: handling data of a firm (data quality, data management, data policies, business process management, risk management) Local Area Networks - group of computers, printers, etc. connected to the same network over limited geographical range (ex. home office) - packet (small unit of data) is part of message/data set sent over networks - LAN devices = hubs, switches o hubs have multiple ports, when data arrives at one port is goes to other ones too! o switch provides path for each pair of connections on the switch by storing address info switching tables Wide area Networks (ex. Internet is the largest and widest) - link different sites, transmit info across geographically dispersed LANs, cover board geographic area - purpose o provide remote access to employees/customers o link two or more sites in a firm o provide corporate access to the internet - slower than LAN in transmitting information but offer guaranteed quality of service and security from point to point connection - uses routers and firewalls o router connects different LANs, software-based intelligent devices that examines IPs of sender and receiver to choose most efficient path in a network to communicate a message, can also divide and interconnect network segments/link two or more physically separate network segments o firewalls are a security system (hardware and software) that is built using routers, servers, and software; examines incoming and outgoing data packets to see if transmission should continue Virtual private network (VPN) - connects WANs by sending/getting encrypted packets - provides users with remote access to their firm’s network using the internet - cheaper than leased lines, but no guaranteed QoS - allow for dispersed productive workforce Wireless networks - comprised of access points + stations o access point: connects stations to a firm’s network o stations: wireless endpoint that has a wireless network interface card Security Objectives for Wired LANS and wireless LANs - confidentiality: only read by authorized party - integrity: intentional or unintentional changes to data in transmission - availability - access control Benefits of Wireless LANs Disadvantages to wireless LANs - mobility: online Attack radio link between station and access point or access, no cables to between two stations connect - eavesdropping (lurk and steal authentication info) - rapid deployment: - man-in-the middle (actively intercepts authentication time saved info between wireless clients and access points implementing networks since no - masquerading (pretend to be authorized user to gain physical cables access) - message modification (alters legitimate message) - message replay (retransmits the messages like they are the user) - misappropriation (steals or uses service even tho not authorized) - traffic analysis (lurk to identify communication patterns and users) - rogue access points (set up unsecure wireless network in same area with same name and intercepts messages)
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