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ANTH 100 (22)

Ch 11 - 18 textbook notes, w/ defintions

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University of Waterloo
ANTH 100
Nicole Hayes

CHAPTER 11 Gender in Comparative Perspectives Sex and GenderSex is biologically determinedGender is culturally determinedSexual Dimorphism physical differences based on genetic differences between females and malesReproductive Physiology only women become pregnant give birth and produce milk Cultural Construction of GenderCultural construction of gender the idea that the characteristics a people attribute to males and females are culturally not biologically determinedcultures have distinctive ideas about males and females use these ideas t define manhoodmasculinity and womanhoodfemininityno single cultures constructions are based entirely on the biological differences between the sexes The Hua of Papua New Guineapatrilineal horticultural people who live in villages of 100300 peoplegender is constructed based on femalemale differences that are not recognized by people outside of Papua New GuineaThe Hua believe that later in life each gender can become like the other in certain respectsBodies contain a lifegiving substance nuFemales have an excess of nugrow faster age more slowly and are unattractively moistMen contain a smaller amount of nuhave difficulty with growth and maintenance of vitality later in life but are attractively dryDuring intercourse o A woman transfers nu to her husband which pollutes and debilitates him o The man contributes his nu to a woman so she gains strength and vitality at his expense o The greater difference in nu between them the more dangerous a woman is a to a manFigapa their bodies contain substances symbolically considered feminineKakora eligible to live in the mens houses and to obtain the secret male knowledge gained during initiation ceremonies Gender or sex Roles the rights and duties individuals have because of their perceived identities as males females or another gender categoryGendered sexual division of labourthe kinds of productive activities tasks assigned to women versus men in a cultureThe rights duties and expectations one acquires by virtue of ones exSexual division of labour the kinds of productive activities assigned to women vs men in a cultureExclusively Maleso Huntingtrapping o Woodworking mining lumbering o Butchering o Boat building o Working with stone horn bone and shell o Smelting oreMostly Males o Metalworking o Fishin o Clearing land preparing soil o Tending large animals o House building o Making rope cordage netsEither or Both Sexes o Gathering small animals o Planting tending and harvesting crops o Milking animals o Preparing skins o Making leather productsMostly Females o Gathering shellfish mollusks wild plant foods o Caring for small animals o Gathering fuel o Fetching water o Processing and preparing plant foods o Making clothes o Mat making loom weaving and making potteryFertility Maintenance heavy prolonged physical exercise by women results in lowered body fat and hormonal changes that reduce female fertility so most strenuous tasks are done by males
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